「風立ちぬ」戦争と日本人 The Wind Rises: The Japanese War Experience (Part 2)

宮崎駿半藤一利の座談会 (2013年08月)からの抜粋
Excerpts from Dialogue between Hayao Miyazaki and Kazutoshi Hando (August 2013):

Source: Studio Ghibli
Japan could never catch up
Kazutoshi Hando: The Mitsubishi Zero Fighter and the grand battleship Yamato were two of the greatest pieces of military engineering of their time, both in terms of technical expertise and level of perfection. That said, Japan failed to develop a national strategy, underpinned by the necessary technological and industrial infrastructure, to take full advantage of these weapons.   


Source: Nikkei Shimbun
私は堀越さんにはお会いしたことはないですが、映画で堀越さんの親友として登場する一式陸攻[H1] の設計者、本庄季郎さんにお会いしました。とても明るい穏やかな紳士で、学校の先生のような雰囲気の方でした。それに対して、堀越さんには、どこかに世界を驚かせてやろうという山っ気が感じられます。
I never had the pleasure of meeting Horikoshi, but I did have the opportunity to meet his good friend Kiro Honjo, the engineer behind the Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber who is also portrayed in the film. He had the air of a school teacher about him, a gentlemen with a bright yet calm disposition. Horikoshi seems to have been a bit more daring, as if he was looking to do something that would take the world by surprise.
Hayao Miyazaki: Horikoshi designed a fighter plane while Honjo was the mastermind behind a bomber. The planes they crafted stood in stark contrast to each other, even when considering they were fundamentally different types of aircraft. Honjo created a plane well suited for mass production, with a design blending straight lines and rounded features. Meanwhile, the Zero was much more detailed in its design, making it difficult to manufacture.


Source: Hasegawa Model
Hando: That’s why Japan only made 10,000 Zero Fighters over a four-year period. Meanwhile, the US cranked out some 12,000 Grumman F6F Hellcats in a two-year span. Granted, there was the major gap in the manufacturing capabilities of the two countries. Even so, much of this owes to the fact that the Zero simply took a long time to make, to the point that some joked it was more of a work of art than a weapon of war.
Miyazaki: Saying all that, I think it’s quite impressive that Japan was able to roll out 10,000 of these difficult-to-make Zero Fighters. I know I dreaded lifting up my pencils and trying to draw the Zero. It’s not that it’s merely tough to depict, but when you fudge it up just a bit, you instantly know you got it completely wrong. Then you have the parabola-like features of the main body, characterized by the subtle changes they make along the way. I ended up doing all this work myself, as no one was going to do it for me, but I got upset when I watched the movie at the premiere, frustrated with the poor job that I did.
Hando: Don’t be so hard on yourself. The scenes with the Zero Fighter are some of the best in the movie.
I actually received a lot of flak about the Zero Fight one time. My passion was more for battleships and naval craft, so I didn’t know all that much about airplanes. Back when I was working at Bungei Shunshu, I was put in charge of doing this special feature on the Japanese Air Force in WW2. My superiors thought I’d be up to the task because I liked military history. That publication really knows how to work its staff hard (laughs). Anyway, we used this illustration of a Zero Fighter over Pearl Harbor for the cover, and oh man, did we get a flood of complaints came from all these airplane aficionados, who told me that I had gotten it completely wrong. While there were Zero Fighters at Pearl Harbor, they were not the 52-type that we had depicted in the cover illustration. Well, they were right, but I always wondered if that was something you could pick up from a mere illustration. I actually brought issue with me today (hands it over to Miyazaki).


Source: Hasegawa Model
Miyazaki: Yep, that’s definitely not a 52-type Zero Fighter.
Hando: Wow, you learn something new every day (laughs).
Miyazaki: There’s a 52-type that Mitsubishi restored after the war that is now on display at the Yushukan (Military Museum at Yasukuni Shrine). A while back there was Zero Fighter owned by an American collector on display in Tokorozawa (city in Saitama, just to the north of Tokyo), and the people in charge of that exhibit gave me a call and said they’d let me climb into the cockpit if I wanted. However, I declined the invite. I mean, we’re talking about the spoils of war here. Do you think a Native American would want to go check out a collection of tomahawks amassed by a white guy? The Zero Fighters on display in museums also don’t sit right with me. They feel devoid of any soul.
Hando: The Zero Fighter is a tragic masterpiece in its own right. The latter half of the Pacific War saw Japan facing a dearth of experienced pilots, effectively muting the advantages of the aircraft and rendering it a relic of the past. In the end, it was literally run into the ground as it was relegated to running suicide attacks.
Miyazaki: The Japanese Air Force should have been looking to make a jet aircraft to replace the Zero. That’s what Horikoshi repeatedly stressed to his superiors, telling them that they needed to develop a jet fighter instead of making tweaks to the Zero. But they never listened to him.
半藤:結局、”持たざる国” 日本にそれだけの国力も先見性もなかったんですね。映画の中で、零戦を牛車で運ぶ場面がありましたね。名古屋の工場から各務原の飛行場まで丸一日かかったというなは有名なエピソードですが、トラックの輸送も、そのための舗装道路も、最後まで実現できなかった。非常に象徴的なシーンです。
Hando: Utlimately, Japan is a “have-not” nation, and in the war it lacked the national strength and foresight to make up for this. There was a scene in the film in which you show the Zero Fighter being drawn by an ox cart. It’s well-known that at the time it took roughly a day to transport the fighters from the factory in Nagoya to the airfield at Kakamigahara. They were never able to pave the road between the two and make it possible to actually move those fighters by truck. That scene really hits hard.


Source: Studio Ghibli
Miyazaki: Yeah, but when you look at what Horikoshi wrote, it made more sense to haul the fighters by ox cart given the state of the roads back then. At the same time, there were not that many Zero Fighters made, so he said it was best to take it slow when moving the planes to the air field. I’m sure he had a soft spot for cows (laughs).
The Nakajima Aircraft Company also used ox carts to transport the aircraft it made at its Koizumi plant in Gunma Prefecture to the Tokorozawa airfield in Saitama. The road between the two had a lot of rough spots, and there are still sections today that are filled in with concrete. The road with the bus stop where Satsuki stands holding an umbrella in the rain with Totoro in that animated film of mine is the same road. It’s an interesting road, fairly wide and has a shrine for the Inari deity off to the side of it, but is not that well known. Sadly that area looks completely different today now that most of the trees have been cut down.
Hando: Getting back to Japan’s deep-rooted problem of being a “have-not” nation, there was a line in The Wind Rises which I felt really drove that point home. When Japan bought the license from Germany to manufacture bombers, one of the characters says something like “I wonder how many people here in Japan are going to end up starving as result of us dumping all this money on a manufacturing license for a tool of war.” Weapons cost a lot of money to make, money that could be put to better use elsewhere. A good example of this is when the restrictions were placed on the construction of mainstay naval craft by the Washington Naval Treaty signed in 1922. This left Japan with a surplus of engineers and steel, which it devoted to building a number of bridges over the Sumida River (which runs along the eastern part of Tokyo). Indeed, they built so many they turned the river into this kind of bridge exhibit, with a lot of different designs on display for the public. This same period also saw Japan make significant headway in fleshing out its railroad infrastructure. These developments really show how much money Japan’s military ate up and took away from the public’s benefit.


Source: Tokyo University
Miyazaki: Naval aircraft definitely cost a lot of money. The flood control system for the Arakawa River supposedly cost about the same amount as a battle cruiser.



Propaganda poster from 1938 telling citizens to put their industrial trash to work

Source: Propaganda Posters: A Window into Wartime Japan (プロパガンダポスターに見る日本の戦争)

「風立ちぬ」戦争と日本人 The Wind Rises: The Japanese War Experience (Part 1)

宮崎駿半藤一利の座談会 (2013年08月)からの抜粋
Excerpts from Dialogue between Hayao Miyazaki and Kazutoshi Hando (August 2013):

Source: Eiga.com
Kazutoshi Hando: The Wind Rises painstakingly depicts the early part of the Showa Period (Dec 1926-Jan 1989), providing us a window into people’s lives and what Japan looked like as it became mired in the mud of war. I was born in Showa 5 (1930), and as I watched the film, I couldn’t help but think that this is the world my parents knew. But you went and tried something new: creating a picture about this period whose main protagonist was Jiro Horikoshi, a historical figure responsible for the design of the Mitsubishi Zero Fighter and Navy Type 96 Carrier-based Fighter (A5M). You then mixed in elements from Tatsuo Hori’s romantic novels The Wind Has Risen and Naoko. I really felt like I was watching the definitive Miyazaki account of the early Showa Period. I may be getting ahead of myself, but I couldn’t help but think you’ve really made it tough for yourself going into the next picture you make.
Hayao Miyazaki: Well thank you very much for your sentiments. But don’t go worrying about me. I’m pretty much done making pictures.
Hando: I’m not buying that. Look at me. I just turned 83 this year (2013), and I’m still working away (chuckles).
Miyazaki: When you put it like that, there’s really nothing I can say (chuckles). Actually, I’m thinking about bidding farewell to the way I’ve made movies over the years. Our producer at Ghibli (Toshio Suzuki) said he thinks The Wind Rises is kind of my last will and testament. The film took five years to make when counting back to the concept stage, and two years to complete when going from the point when we began hammering out the drawings.

Kazutoshi Hando (left) and Hayao Miyazaki (right)
Source: J-cast News
Hando: Five years in total…
Miyazaki: It’s tough for me to imagine what I’ll be like five years down the road, or what kind of film I should make. Originally, The Wind Rises was just this serial color manga insert (note: manga are generally black and white) for a model magazine that I was working on after the release of the Ponyo. Children are always at the forefront for me when I do animation, and this manga was just something I was doing for fun. That was reflected in the way I depicted the characters, drawing Jiro Horikoshi and others as pigs.
宮崎:今はファンタジーを作ることがますます難しくなっています。東日本大震災原発事故などに直面し、映画の中だけ幸せ、なんてありえない。そう考えてしまうんです。そこに鈴木プロデューサーが “「風立ちぬ」をやりましょう”と提案してきた。しかし、零戦の設計者が主人公で、戦前の日本が舞台では、どうやっても子供が土俵の外に置かれてしまう。そうしたら、“子供たちもいつか大人になって分かる日がくる”と言った人間がいて、そうかも知れない、と。
Miyazaki: It’s gotten much tougher to do fantasy now. The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear disaster have weighed heavy on the mind, making me feel that it’s impossible for films to be this joyful place of refuge. But producer Suzuki approached me and said we should do The Wind Rises. I was a little reluctant at first given that the subject matter isn’t exactly tailored made for kids, especially since it takes place in pre-war Japan and the main protagonist is the man who engineered the Zero Fighter. Then someone said that there will come a day when these kids grow up, and then they’ll be able to understand the film. I thought to myself, yeah, that might be the case.
Horikoshi as a reflection of Miyazaki himself
半藤: なるほど。それにしても、堀越二郎堀辰雄の世界に送り込むという着想には、意表をつかれました。堀越二郎堀辰雄は一歳違いなんですね。されに言えば、堀越が零戦の開発に取り組み始めたのが昭和十二年 (1937)。そして堀が「風立ちぬ」を書き上げたのも同じ昭和十二年なんのです。一見まるで毛色の違う、しかしまさしく同時代を生きた二人を結びつけたのは非凡なアイデアですよ。そもそも、なぜ堀越二郎を主人公に、と考えたのですか?
Hando: I see. But I feel that you surprised a lot of people by deciding to put Jiro Horikoshi into the world of Tatsuo Hori. The two men were only a year apart in real life. On top of that, the year Horikoshi began developing the Zero Fighter was 1937, the same year in which Hori finished writing his novel The Wind Has Risen. On the surface these look like two completely different individuals, but they both lived through the same period of history. I thought it was a stroke of genius to create that connection between the two. Indeed, what led you to settle on Jiro Horikoshi as the main character for your film?

Jiro Horikoshi
Source: BS Asahi

宮崎: 彼を描かないと、この国のおかしさが描けないと思ったんです。僕は、ある時まで「戦前」という時代を想像できませんでした。目の前は焼け野原だらけで、あれだけの人が死んだ。南方や中国では悲惨なことをいっぱい起こしたことを知ると、あまりにもこの国が屈辱的に感じられ、戦前の日本は、”灰色の世界”としか思えなかった。そんな中で、人はどうやって生きたのか。自分の親父はいい時代だったと言っていました。どうも、うまくかみ合わなかった。それと、ヒコーキ好きや、架空戦記もののマニアから零戦を取り戻したかったんです。
Miyazaki: I felt that portraying him was crucial to showing how strange this country is. For a long time I couldn’t imagine what pre-war Japan was like. As a small child, all I knew was the burned out landscapes (from the bombing raids) and the fact that a lot of people had died. Later on when I learned about all the atrocious things that Japan had done in southern Asia and in China, I felt a sense of humiliation about this country. Pre-war Japan was simply this “gray world” to me, and I always wondered how people went about their lives in that period. My father said it was a great time. Reflecting on all this, things just don’t line up right. Another motivating factor was a desire to wrest the Zero Fighter back from all those airplane aficionados and people obsessed with fictional war accounts.

Zero Fighter in The Wind Rises
Source: Studio Ghibli
宮崎: 堀越二郎という人は、著書を読んでみても、奥歯に物が挟まっている 感じで、本音が分からないところがありますね。ただ、零戦のテスト飛行を見つめて、一言「美しい」と洩らしている。僕は、これが堀越の本音だったと思ったんです。彼が作りたかったのは戦闘機ではなく、美しい飛行機だった。
Miyazki: Books about Jiro Horikoshi leave you with the impression that he was not really one to open up, making it tough to know what he thought. There’s an account of him observing one of the Zero Fighter test flights, and the only thing he said was “that’s beautiful”. But I really latched on to that, because I felt it provides us with a window into his mind. He didn’t want to create a fighter plane. I believe that all he really wanted to do was produce a beautiful piece of aircraft. 
半藤: 零戦の設計を巡っては、海軍内で大論争が起きました。飛行隊長の源田実は格闘能力、つまり運動性能を優先させろと言い、海軍航空廠(かいぐんこうくうしょう)の柴田武雄は速度と航続距離を要求する。私は、二人とも会って話を聞いたことがありますが、戦後になっても仇敵のように相手を罵り合っていましたね。結局、設計者の堀越には、両方とも満たせという無理難題が押し付けられたのですが、堀越はそれを見事にクリアしました。そこのあたりを、宮崎さんは映画の中で、とても戯画的に処理していて、痛快でした。
Hando: There was an intense debate within the Imperial Japanese Navy about what kind of plane the Zero Fighter should be. Captain Minoru Genda, who headed his own fighter squadrons, was adamant that the craft possess excellent maneuverability that would give it an edge in dogfights. On the opposite side of the table was Captain Takeo Shibata from the Naval Aeronautical Technology Institution. The most important criteria for him were speed and the ability to fly long distances. I had the opportunity to meet with both of these men years after the war, and even then they still despised each other, cursing the other guy whenever talking about him. Anyway, they thrust this impossible engineering task on Horikoshi, demanding that he meet both of their demands. And yet, Horikoshi was able to deliver on both, and he did so magnificently. I really got a kick out of your caricaturized depictions of these two officers in the film.


Captain Minoru Genda (left) and Captain Takeo Shibata (right)
Source: Wikipedia Commons


Miyazaki: Speaking of Genda, after the war he received a special honor from Curtis LeMay, the mastermind behind the Great Tokyo Air Raid. I didn’t want to give a proper depiction of guys like Genda.
半藤: 彼らが帰った後、上司に「お前聞いていないだろう?」と聞かれて、堀越が「はい」と答える(笑)。我々は軍部の無理な要求を押し付けられた堀越の苦悩を考えがちですが、宮崎さんは、堀越はそんなことは関係なく、自分の好きな、美しい飛行機を作ったのだ、と考える。これは新しい解釈だと思いました。
Hando: Horikoshi’s superiors asked him, “you didn’t hear all that, did you” after the Navy guys left, to which he replied, “No I didn’t” (chuckles). We tend to think that Horikoshi really struggled with the impossible demands of the military, but it seems you felt he didn’t really worry about that. He just went about making the beautiful plane that he wanted to created. I found that to be a new take on the individual.
宮崎: そうですね、もしかすると自分の理想の飛行機に、軍の要求を合わせたではないか、と。。。
Miyazaki: I think so. Perhaps all he was doing was meshing the spec demands of the military with the type of beautiful plane that he wanted to make.
半藤: その堀越は、宮崎さん本人ではありませんか?周りの要求はどうあろうと、俺は俺の好きなものを作るという信念を貫く。(脇を見て)。プロデューサーさん、そうでしょう(笑)。
Hando: Could it be that the Horikoshi we see in the film is really a reflection of yourself, Miyazaki-san? You just go about making the film that you want to make, paying little heed to the demands of those around you. (Looks off to the side to the producer), isn’t that right? (everyone laughs)
宮崎: 僕はそれしか出来ないからやっているだけです(笑)。
Miyazaki: That’s all I can do. Can’t really help it because that’s who I am (laughs).
半藤: さらに言えば、 堀越さんたちが九六式艦戦や零戦を設計していた当時、飛行機が次の戦争の主役になると、予測できた人は、山本五十六などごく少数の人たちだけだったのです。だから、堀越さんたちの仕事は、非常に孤独な戦いでもあった。
Hando: When Horikoshi and his colleagues were designing the Zero Fighter and Navy Type 96 Carrier-based Fighter (A5M), Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was probably one of the few people among the Japanese military brass that recognized that aircraft would take center stage in the next major war. Horikoshi and his colleagues’ work was ultimately a very lonely task indeed.

Isoroku Yamamoto
Source: Nishinippon Shimbun
半藤: また、これも「遅れてきた国」の悲しさなのですが、昭和八、九年ごろには、先進諸国では、エネルギーの主役が石炭から石油に移るという大転換を迎えていたのです。ところが、日本の軍部のほとんどは、依然として石炭中心のエネルギー観のままだった。第二次大戦の主役となったのは、飛行機と戦車でしたが、どちらも石油がないと動けない。石油への転換についていけなかったということは、その意味で致命的でした。
Hando: Sadly, the fact that many in the Japanese military were slow to recognize the importance of airplanes in combat reflected how Japan always lagged behind the more advanced nations of the world. In 1933-34, these nations were already making the switch from coal to petroleum as their main source of energy. However, the majority of Japan’s military brass was still stuck on coal. Aircraft and tanks were two of the main weapons in WW2, and both of these needed gasoline to run. In that respect, Japan’s inability to keep pace with other countries and make the switch to oil as its main energy source proved fatal.
宮崎: その意味では、今も似たような状況にありますね。石油文明が終わりにさしかかり、原子力が生き詰まっているのに、まだ日本は大転換に舵を切れないでいます。堀越や本庄(堀越の同僚)は十年の遅れを必死になって追いかけたのですが、残念なことに追いつけなかった。
Miyazaki: Listening to you say that, I feel that Japan is standing at a similar crossroads right now. This oil-driven civilization of ours is coming to an end, and things don’t look all that bright for nuclear power. And yet, even though the writing’s on the wall, Japan can’t seem to take that first step forward and pursue the change that is needed. Horikoshi and Honjo (Horikoshi’s colleague) gave it their all trying to close that 10 year technological gap, but unfortunately in the end they failed.  

月夜が成す闇と光の一体感 Moonlit Nights and the Duality of Light and Dark

日本の戦国時代史上最も有名の合戦を描く、超絶歴史エンターテインメントと称された宮下秀樹が書いた「桶狭間戦記 」という漫画をこの間、また再読することにした。何回も再読したこの漫画だけど、いつも新たな発見があり、それがまた新た「問い掛け」を投ずる。今回の再読で特に印象に残ったシーンは三国同盟(今川、北条、武田)が結ばれた会見を開く前に今川義元と彼の軍師且つ師匠でもあった臨済宗の禅僧の太原雪斎が交わす会話のシーンである。義元は弟子たる一方で、このシーンで師と弟子の立場が逆になり、問いを出すのは義元の方である。交わした禅問答は下記の通り。

''Okehazama Senki (Annals of Okehazama)'' is an incredible piece of historical fiction that looks at the most famous battle in Japan's Warring States Period. Recently I decided to this series for the umpteenth time, and each time brings a new discovery that also raises new questions. One scene that really stuck with me this time around was the conversation that Yoshimoto Imagawa had with Taigen Sessai, the Rinzai sect Zen priest who served as his military adviser and teacher, ahead of the meeting that led to the alliance between the Imagawa, Hojo, and Takeda clans. In this particular scene their roles are reversed, with Yoshimoto in the teacher's chair and Sessai the student. The conversation plays out in a typical Zen question-answer dialogue. 


f:id:akiruno_life:20200621154716j:image f:id:akiruno_life:20200621154828j:image


Yoshimoto: Riddle me this.
Sessai: And what riddle may that be?
Yoshimoto: How is it that the moon shines?
Sessai: Darkness. The darker it is, the brighter the moon shines.
Yoshimoto: Hahaha. Very true. But tell me, how does the moon shine once the darkness has gone?




さて、これをどう解釈するのか。拙僧から見ると、太陽の光があまりにも眩しく、凝視することも出来ず、他の光も呑み込まれてしまう。しかし、月の光がそれほど膨大ではなく、夜の闇と共演するからこそその明かりをじっと見ることが出来るし、その麗しさを堪能できる。つまり、月の輝きは独奏ではく、協奏に候。まさにスターウォーズにおけるフォースの存在の如し。#桶狭間戦記 #禅問答 #今川義元 #太原雪斎 #闇と光 #フォース #スターウォーズ
So what exactly does this mean? My interpretation is this. The sun is so incredibly bright, we are unable to stare into its light. Indeed, the light of the sun drowns out all other light. That is not the case with the moon, for it is far smaller in scale. It shares the stage the darkness of night, which allows us to stare into its light and appreciate its beauty.  The moon is not solo performer, but part of a grander ensemble. In many respects, that's the nature of the Force we see in Star Wars.



漢字を通して見るベーダーという闇 Understanding the Darkness that Is Vader through Kanji


中国文化史の研究家である阿辻哲次(京都大学)の助言を頂いてスターウォーズ新作の映画の小説の翻訳に携わった稲村広香が編集した「スターウォーズ:漢字の奥義」は興味深い一冊だ。「漢字を知れば、宇宙が、人間が、己が解る」というテーマに基づいて、「本書は漢字をキーワードとしてスターウォーズの場面を読み解こうとするものです..... いくつの漢字をじっと見ていると、そこにジェダイの光が、シスの闇が見えてくる..... ヨーダの言葉に含まれる洞察や、アナキンの苦しみが現れている気がするのです。スターウォーズ世界の根底に、東洋思想にも通じる理念を感じる方は多いではないでしょうか?(本書の''はじめに''より)。#スターウォーズ #東洋思想 #漢字 #フォースと共にあらんことを #ジェダイ #シス #光と闇 
"Star Wars: Kanji Story" is fascinating work put together by the Japanese translator of the novel adaptations of the Star Wars sequels Hiroka Inamura, who enlisted the help of Chinese literary  scholar Tetsuji Atsuji (Kyoto University). The book's premise explores how knowledge of kanji (Chinese characters) helps to unlock understanding of the cosmos, humanity, and ourselves. "This book uses kanji as key concepts for breaking down different scenes in Star Wars... Staring at these characters, we come to see the light of the Jedi and the darkness of the Sith... It's as if they provide us a look into perception found within Yoda's teachings, and the anguish within Anakin. Indeed, many probably feel that there is a connection with Eastern philosophy and intellectual thought that lies at the heart of the Star Wars universe." (excerpt from prologue of  "Mastering Kanji through Star Wars"). 


The book takes a look at 43 different kanji characters. One that was especially intriguing is 闇 (yami; "darkness"). When talking about the Dark Side in Japanese, this character/word is always used along with 暗 (kurai/an; "dark"). One great example is in this passage from the end of Obi Wan and Anakin's battle on Mustafar: "You were the chosen one! It was said that you would destroy the Sith, not join them! Bring balance to the Force, not leave it in darkness (闇)!"

 この漢字の成り立ちについて稲村氏がこう解説する:「"闇"は"門"と、読みをあらわす音符"音 (イム→アム)"の文字で構成され、"門"を閉ざすことを意味する。夜に行われた祭祀で、"門"の向こうから"音"が聞こえるのを聞いて、神の訪れを認識したという説もある。同様に、"暗"は太陽の形を示す"日"と、読みをあらわす"音"から成り、日が隠れて"くらい"という意を示す。"闇"と"暗"は意だけはなく、読みも成り立ちもよく似ているわけだ。」
Inamura explains the evolution of the character 闇 (yami) as follows: "The kanji 闇 (yami) consists of two parts.  The first is 門(mon). The second is '音', which serves as the reading of the character ('imu', then later 'amu').  It has the meaning of 'sound'. When combined together, the completed kanji conveys the meaning of 'shut behind the gate'. One explanation for the conception of this character was the special rituals performed at night, with the 'sound' of the spirits heard coming from beyond the gate. A similar process lays behind the development of the character 暗 (kurai/an). The first part of the character is 日 (nichi, hi, jitsu) for 'sun', with the second being the same 音 from which the completed character derives its meaning. Taken together, the kanji 暗 implies the meaning of "sun hiding". The underlying conception and inherent meaning of 闇 and 暗 are quite similar."


The one element of this explanation that really caught my attention was the reference to being "shut behind the gate". That single image conveys everything about the essence of Vader's identity. Indeed, Vader is the personification of the meaning imbued within the character 闇 (yami). Interpreted differently, Anakin's fall into darkness can be viewed as the light of Anakin being locked away, imprisoned. This take is vividly portrayed at the end of Revenge of the Sith, Anakin is laid out on the surgical table, with the mask coming down from straight above his head. Right when the mask comes above Anakin's face, we see fear reflected in his eyes. The camera then switches to Anakin's perspective, and we see the mask coming straight down, then locking into place. At that instant, the persona of Anakin is completely locked away. The ensuing sense of imprisonment that wells up gives rise to the pain that becomes engine which drives Vader. 


However, no gate remains closed forever. There comes a time when someone opens the door or knocks it down. In much the same fashion, the "dark gate" that shut away the person that was Anakin did not remain closed permanently. Obi Wan and Yoda were captive to the old values of the Jedi, believing that once someone falls into darkness, there is no way for them to come back to the light. Yet, when we adopt a different view and look at Vader in terms of the "闇(yami)" character, we see that this view of the darkness was flawed. There is light inside, and all that needs to be done to let it out is to open/smash down the door. In that sense, Luke understood this facet of "闇(yami)", and it was his fervent supplication that shattered the gate and released the light that was Anakin. The meaning of the kanji character "闇(yami)"  implies that darkness is not a bottomless pit. Rather, it's a gate that can be opened and closed.

''我らの道'': マンダロリアン、ジェダイと武士道 “This is the Way”: Mandalorians, Jedi, and Bushido

 初めてのスターウォーズの実写版テレビドラマである「ザ・マンダロリアン」は北米より約一ヶ月半を遅れて2019年末に日本で配信し始め、日本のスターウォーズファンに置いて大好評ともなっている。第一シーズンはいくつのお決まりセリフを生み出して、その中で大変な反響を得たのは「This is the way」である。第三話に出るこのセリフだけど、日本語字幕と吹替ではどのような邦訳になるかとずっと気になっていた。非常に簡単なセリフである一方、その文言(もんごん)に織り込められている意味は深遠である。拙僧の推測では、間違いなく「道」がその訳に入ると想定し、それは見事に的中した:「我らの道」。元の英語の意味合いを訳出しつつ、それと同時により深い意味合いも加えている。その訳を英語に戻すと「This is our way」と成り、「これこそマンダロリアンが歩むすべし道」との意味合いが織り込められているとの解釈にも繋がる。翻訳として傑作に候。

"The Mandalorian" is the first ever live-action Star Wars drama for TV. It began streaming in Japan at the end of 2019, roughly a month and a half after the North American release, and quickly become a big hit among Japanese Star Wars fans. The first season has brought us a number of memorable lines, and many have really taken off. One of these catchphrases is "This is the way", and prior to the Japanese release of the show I had been wondering how it would be translated to Japanese. It's a simple expression, but also one imbued with deep meaning. My hunch was that it would include the Japanese word "michi (道, "way", "path", "road"), and that hunch proved correct: "Warera (我ら) no michi (の道)". This translation captures the original meaning of the English, but also adds another layer of meaning. When this is translated back into English, we get "this is our way”, with the added meaning in the Japanese subtitles/dub implying "this is our way as Mandalorians". It’s a truly sublime translation into the Japanese language.


Source: Disney Japan


「道」という字は数えきれないほど多くの日本語の単語と表現に用いられ、その概念は日本史に置いて奈良時代より遡る。その原点となるのは朝鮮半島を通して日本に伝来した中華思想の一つである「道教(ダオイズム)」と日本文化研究家の松岡正剛氏がいう。「ダオイズムがわからなければ、日本はわからないという面も少なくない。日本には歌道と華道とか、茶道とか、あるいは武士道とか道徳といった言い方がたくさんありますが、そこで使われる “道” という言葉には、どこでダオイズムの “道” が関わっている。すなわち、“究極の方法” が道なのです。英語で言えば “Way” というものだったのです。」
The kanji for the word “michi (道)” is used in countless Japanese words and expressions. The underlying concept for “michi” stretches back to before the Nara Period (eight century A.D.). According to Japanese culture scholar Seigo Matsuoka, the root of this “michi” concept is Taoism, one of the currents of Chinese intellectual thought that made its way to Japan via the Korean peninsula. [The Japanese word for Taoism is 道教 (dokyo), which breaks down to the “way (道) of learning (教)”. “Do (long “o”) '' is how the character is read when paired with other kanji.] Matsuoka writes: “There are many aspects of Japan that only become clear once you understand Taoism. We have a number of different expressions which use the character “道”, such as the two kado (歌道, “way of poetry” and 華道, “way of flower arranging), sado (茶道, “way of tea”), bushido (武士道, “way of the warrior”, and dotoku (道徳, “way of virtue”). The character “道” in each of these expressions connects to the Taoist idea of “the way”, as it is described in English. It refers to a means for pursuing some ultimate form or truth.”
The one particular “michi” in Matsuoka’s quote that I want to look at here in this post is “bushido (武士道)”, a Japanese word that is fairly well-known in other countries. When people hear the word "bushido", the general concept that comes to mind is the code or way of living of the samurai, the iconic warrior class in the annals of Japanese history. In terms of the Star Wars universe, there are two groups of warriors that stand above the rest: the Jedi and the Mandalorians. A comparison of how these two groups are depicted within the saga brings to light the contrasting nature of the two different modes of "bushido" that existed within Japanese history.  

この二つの武士道の中で、一般的に思い浮かばれるのは江戸時代の初期に山本常朝の著作「葉隠」で唱えた武士としての心得である。この「葉隠」は1999年のジム・ジャムシュ監督作品の「ごスト・ドッグ:ウェイ・オブ・ザ・サムライ」でも取り上げられ、主人公を演じるフォレストウィテカーが映画の中この著作からのいくつの名言を読み上げる。その一つは「武士道とは死ぬことを見つけたり(The Way of the Samurai is found in death)」であった。「葉隠」に次いでもう一つの武士道に関する名著は1899年に英語で書かれて出版された新渡戸稲造の「Bushido: The Soul of Japan」である。当時の日本は凄まじいペースで本格的な近代国家になろうとしていて、そこで日本の伝統的な哲学と思想を海外に向けて分かりやすく解説するため新渡戸氏がこの本を著した。
The variant of bushido that most people think of is the warrior mindset laid out in Jocho Yamamoto's "Hagakure", which was written in the first decades of the Edo Period (1603-1868). "Hagakure" made its way into the 1999 Jim Jarmusch film ”Ghost Dog: Way of the Samurai", with the main character (played by Forrest Whitaker) reading aloud select passages over the course of the movie. One of these was "the way of the samurai is found in death". Another famous book on bushido written and published (in English) by Inazo Nitobe in 1899 was called "Bushido: The Soul of Japan". The nation was working feverishly at that time to transform itself into a full-fledged modern state, and Nitobe took it upon himself to write a work that explained Japan's traditional philosophy and intellectual thought in a straightforward-manner for foreign audiences.



山本常朝 (左) と新渡戸稲造 (右)

Jocho Yamamoto (left) and Inazo Nitobe (right)

Some similarities in these treatises on bushido can be drawn, even though they were written about 250 years apart. The first can be found in the lives of the respective authors. Jocho Yamamoto lived in the Edo Period, which is often referred to as "the era of the great peace (泰平 taihei)" in Japanese. He was born in 1659, 22 years after the last vestiges of the Warring States Period (戦国時代 sengoku jidai) were extinguished with the suppression of the Shimabara Rebellion (Tokugawa shogunate's  brutal campaign to drive Japanese Christians into the ground). Inazo Nitobe was born into a samurai family in 1862 during a period known as "bakumatsu (幕末)" in Japanese (period when Japan wrestled with whether to remain in quasi-isolation or open up to the West). By the time he was an adult, Japan's age of warrior rule had become a thing of the past. The idea of bushido that he formulated within his mind was based solely on the memories of the Edo period that he heard from his parents and seniors. In short, both of these men only knew eras of peace, and never set foot on the battlefield. The question remains then as to what purpose bushido served in these times of peace. In his historical drama manga "Okehazama Senki (Annals of Okehazama)", which looks at the events leading up to one of the most famous battles in Japanese history, author Hideki Miyashita writes the following: "Bushido represented a set of mores meant to engender domestic stability in times of peace. It was a form of feudalism." 


Manga ''Annals of Okehazama'' by Hideki Miyashita

葉隠」に置いて特にクローズアップされる言葉は先ほど記述した「武士道とは死ぬことを見つけたり」であるけど、そこが大事ではないと松岡氏がいう。松岡氏が注目するのは次の言葉である: 「奉りおきたるこの身」。この言葉が反映するのは江戸時代に定着した朱子学に基づいた思想である。後々の19世紀末に新渡戸が書いた「Bushido」では江戸幕府の国内安定の基盤となったこの朱子学に染めた武士道を引き継がれキリスト教と融合させ、欧米にも通用する「奉りおきたるこの身」という概念を日本の伝統の道徳規範として定義させようとした。
One quote from the "Hagakure" that often gets a lot of attention is the aforementioned "the way of the samurai is found in death" passage. However, the message here is not that important in terms of what this bushido signified, according to Seigo Matsuoka. The quote that really sticks out to him is the following: "pledging oneself to serve (service)". These words are a reflection of the Neo-Confucianism ideals that took root during the Edo period (and were vividly reflected in bushido), providing the base for the domestic stability of the Tokugawa shogunate. Inazo Nitobe later tried to pass these ideals on and fuse them with Christianity in his work "Bushido" to establish a set of "traditional" Japanese mores Western nations could recognize and understand. 

This commitment to service is vividly reflected in the way the Jedi Order is depicted within the Star Wars universe. The Jedi believed in the Force, particularly the Light Side, and strove to follow its will and hold the power of the Dark Side in check throughout the galaxy. They were the guardians of peace and justice of the old Galactic Republic. Their function as a strict peacekeeping organization combined with the auspices of the Galactic Senate’s rule were the formula for the law and order that preserved over a 1,000 years of peace. In short, the Jedi’s dedication to service was the very foundation of the galaxy’s peace, and their existence vital to that of the old Republic. At the same time, this notion of service was rooted in the ideals of peace, and it proved to be a factor that ultimately led to their own downfall. The Clone Wars, which were sparked by the Separatist movement crisis, forced them to venture off the path of pace. This development fatally weakened the Order, and by the time the Jedi realized that the entire conflict was engineered behind the scenes by the Sith, it was already too late.



Source: Disney Japan
Now we’ll take a look at how the other mode of bushido came into being. In fact, it is probably more appropriate to describe it as the “original” form of bushido. This mode of thought manifested itself during Japan’s Warring States period, which lasted from around 1480 to the early 1600s. According to the new historical theory Miyashita outlines in the manga “Annals of Okehazama”, this period in Japanese history was caused by a “little ice age”. Climatology research shows that the sun burned less intensely between 1450 and 1600. This plunged the northern hemisphere into an extended cool period, bringing about an age of successive famines. Against this backdrop, people turned to war as the prescription for avoiding starvation. In short, they elected to fight and take from others the food they needed to survive. The ruling Ashikaga shogunate at that time was unable to mount an adequate response to these famines, which in turn caused its authority to decline. The new forces that stepped into this void to save the people around them were the daimyo, or warlords.



Manga ''Annals of Okehazama'' by Hideki Miyashita

In his “Annals of Okehazama”, Miyashita highlights two quotes from samurai that lived during the Warring States period.
“A man who does not change the lord he serves at least seven times cannot be called a bushi (samurai).” (Takatora Todo)
“It does not matter if the means you choose cause people to label you a dog or absolute scum. All that matters (for a samurai) is to win.” (Soteki Asakura).
Miyashita follows up these two quotes with this summary: “These two quotes reveal the hardcore realism ascribed to by samurai in the Warring States period. The ideas of loyalty or sincerity (in otherwords spirit of service) were not their driving motivation. It did not matter to them how much scorn they earned. In their minds, a real samurai was one who survived.”
The phrase that deserves to be highlighted here is “one who survived”. In episode three “The Sin” of “The Mandalorian”, there is a scene in which the protagonist takes the bounty of Beskar steel (special steel forged by the Mandalorians) he received to a person known as the Armorer. The conversation that transpires here provides a nice window into this “survival by any means” disposition.



Source: Disney Japan

Heavy Infantry: “These (slabs of Beskar) were cast in an Imperial smelter. These are the spoils of the Great Purge. The reason that we live hidden like sand rats.”
Armorer: “Our secrecy is our survival. Our survival is our strength.”
Heavy Infantry: “Once our strength was in our numbers. Now we live in the shadows and only come above ground one at a time. Our world was shattered by the Empire, with whom this coward shares tables.”
アーマーラ―(鍛冶屋):帝国はもう存在しない。それにベスカが戻ってきた。マンドロアの道を進むことにした者は、ハンターであり獲物でもある。卑怯者はそんな生き方を選ばないはずよ… 我らの道」
Armorer: “The Empire is no longer. And the Beskar has returned. When one chooses to walk the Way of the Mandalore, you are both hunter and prey. How can one be a coward if one chooses this way of life?.. This is the way.”
The hunter hunts their prey in order to survive. The hunted/prey does everything they can to run away from the hunter to survive. The first time I watched this scene in the Japanese dub, the line “ikinobiru koto ga tsuyosa yo (our survival is our strength)” brought to mind what Miyashita wrote about the bushido of the Warring States period. Both the hunter and the hunted possess that same drive to survive. In short, survival is victory. The “Way of the Mandalore” as depicted in this scene signifies a code rooted in the same reasoning espoused by the samurai who lived through the Warring States period.

There's another scene that I also feel vividly portrays the underlying meaning of the ''our survival is our strength'' pretense. That scene is in episode 16 ''The Lawless'' in season 5 of ''Star Wars: The Clone Wars.'' (Darth) Maul's scheming has plunged Mandalore into civil war. As Obi Wan makes his escape, he is helped by Bo Katan, the leader of the faction standing up to Maul. Here is their conversation as the battle rages around them:
Bo Katan: “Go back to your Republic and tell them what has happened.”
Obi Wan: “But that would likely lead to a Republic invasion of Mandalore.”
Bo Katan: “Yes, but Maul will die, and Mandalore will survive. We always survive.”
Bo Katan then turns her gaze back to the raging battle, twin blasters firing away into the fray. My head canon believes that in her mind, she finished what she said to Obi Wan with these words: “This is the way.” That is why she was prepared to accept a Republic invasion of her world, because she was willing to do whatever it took to ensure Mandalore’s survival. That is the meaning of “this is the way.”



Source: IGN


哀れと天晴: スターウォーズにおけるクローン兵士の二重性 Pathos and Triumph: The Duality of the Clone Troopers in Star Wars

Language is truly a living entity in a perpetual state of transition. The shifting currents of history and social upheaval cause the meaning of words to “transform”, and this transformation is often accompanied by a corresponding change in worldviews which enveloped those expressions. The Japanese language is no exception. The introduction of Buddhism, kanji characters, and other forms of Chinese culture by way of the Korean peninsula left an indelible mark on Japanese, giving rise to countless new expressions. With the emergence of Japan’s own nobility, which modeled itself after the courts of ancient China, it created its own language culture such as waka (poetry).
興味深い変遷を成し遂げた単語の一つは「あはれ・あわれ(哀れ)」です。案外にも「哀れ」は意味に富んだ言葉でもあるけど、デジタル大辞泉によると近世以後は主として悲哀・哀憐(あいれん)の感情を表すのに限定されている。しかし、平安時代ではより深遠な意味合いがこの単語に込めていた。日本文化の優れた研究家である松岡正剛によると「哀れ」は平安時代の王朝が生み出したキーコンセプトであり、季節や人やものごとの有為転変を詠嘆するときに用いられていた (参照:Roots of Japan[s])。
One word that has undergone a fascinating transformation of its own is aware (哀れ). This word is rich in meaning, but according to the Digital Daijisen dictionary its usage in modern times has been limited almost exclusively to the ideas of sadness/grief and pathos/compassion/pity (for another’s plight). However, this word held a more profound meaning in the Heian Period (794-1185). Seigo Matsuoka, a leading scholar of Japanese culture, identifies aware as a key concept of the culture created by the court of this age. The noble culture used aware to express admiration for the vicissitudes of the seasons, people, and all the ephemeral things in life (Ref: Roots of Japan[s]).
侍の台頭で時代が平安から鎌倉に移り変わり、その社会の変革により「あわれ」から新たなコンセプトが派生した。ここで松岡氏の言葉を引用したい。「武士たちは、こうした王朝の雅びに惹かれつつ、潔く死にゆく者たちの{あはれ}を、破裂音を伴って{あっぱれ」と名付けました。世の移り変わりを儚む{あわれ}の感覚をあえて、積極的に受け入れていく{あっぱれ}に転じていったのです(参照:Roots of Japan[s])。」このように、「あわれ」から「あっぱれ」が派生したけど、それ以降の時代でその両方の言葉は表裏一体の関係を持ち続けていた。ただし、明治維新により武士政権の時代に幕が降り、西欧列強のような近代国家の道を歩むと決意した日本ではこの武士の特質な価値観を表す「あっぱれ」という言葉が次第に使われなくなっていく一方、「あわれ」は現在の意味合いが確立されてきた。
The rise of the samurai signaled the transition from Heian into the Kamakura period, and with this dramatic change in Japanese society a new variation of the “aware” concept was born. Once again Matsuoka provides us with great insight here. “While the samurai were attracted to the elegance of court culture, they chose to substitute the “w” in aware with the explosive “pp” sound—more befitting their nature—resulting in the term appare. This new term was used to express admiration and respect for fellow warriors dying in good grace, thus transforming a sympathetic emotional response into an active affirmation of the transient nature of the world (Ref: Roots of Japan[s]).” While existing as a distinct word on its own, appare was essentially the other side of the aware coin, and this duality continued over the course of the next few centuries. The Meiji Restoration in the 19th century signaled the end of the warrior-led regime in Japan, with the new government embarking on the path to become a modern nation-state like the Great Western Powers of that age. The word appare faded from the lexicon, and with it the unique samurai worldview that it expressed, while aware settled into the meanings it possesses today. 



平家物語の絵巻の一枚(出典: 明星大学図書館)

Scene from ''Tale of Heike'' (Source: Meisei University Library)


Turning our eyes to that galaxy far, far, away, there is a group of characters that embody the duality of the aware and appare concepts: the Clone Troopers (Clones). Indeed, you would be hard pressed to find another set of characters in the entire Star Wars saga that suffer a more tragic fate than the Clones. In that sense, I believe they symbolize the pathos inherent in the aware concept. They were essentially no more than expendables manufactured by the Kaminoans with their advanced cloning technology to fulfill a distinct purpose. The Clones were engineered to obey orders while being able to think on their feet. At the same time, they were also programmed to age at twice the pace of normal human beings so that could be “put into use” sooner. While they qualify as “human beings” in terms of their genetics, some elements within the Jedi Order as well as society at large did not really view them “as human” because they were created via a synthetic process.


クローン生産ラインを視察するオビ・ワン (出典: starwars.com)

Obi Wan checking out the Clone production line (Source: starwars.com)


Many people believed that the Clone Army was created to protect the Galactic Republic from the threat of civil war it faced from the Separatist Movement. The vast majority of the Clones took a sense of pride and purpose in this “public” role, giving their all in the service of the Republic. They rejected the notion that there were mere expendables and actively embraced their identity as human warriors on the battlefield, not war machines. This image of Clone troopers fighting and falling gallantly serves as a fitting parallel of the appare worldview formulated by the samurai in the Kamakura Period in Japan. The Commission for the Protection of the Republic (COMPOR) deftly employed this imagery to create a convincing sell for the public, portraying the Clones as gallant heroes staking their livings for freedom, democracy, and the Republic. Drawing upon this appare imagery, COMPOR coined the nickname “boys in white” for the Clones and used them to advance the Republic’s propaganda.


共和国のプロパガンダ (出典: Wookiepedia)

Grand Republic propaganda (Source: Wookiepedia)

As the war wore on, the Clones each began to develop their own unique personalities and characters. This individuality was further enriched by the trust and friendship they built with their Jedi commanders with whom they fought, and with that influence their own sense of humanity blossomed. This realization was vividly reflected in the message Captain Rex of the 501st gave to Dogma, one of the troopers under his command, during the assault on the planet Umbara. “I used to believe that being a good soldier meant doing everything they told you. That’s how they engineered us. But we’re not droids. We’re not programmed. You have to learn to make your own decisions.”

キャプテンレックスと第501隊 (出典: starwars.com)

Captain Rex and the 501st (Source: starwars.com)


Rex himself did not realize it at the time, but his own words hinted at the tragic aware aspect of the Clones own destiny. Yes, the Clones were human, but they were also synthetically “manufactured”, and thus ironically subjected to the same “programming” that was carried out in the fabrication of droids. Their default settings left them programmed to carry out orders without questioning, just like droids, so long as one certain command (order) was entered. These default settings were governed by a control chip embedded within the Clones’ cerebrums. These settings were slowly changed as a result of the individuality fostered by the friendship and sense of trust Clones developed with their Jedi commanders. Indeed, these changes helped make them even more human. That said, there was a command that could restore those default settings: “Order 66”, the special order to kill the Jedi hatched by Darth Sidious. The only way to override this command was by physically removing this chip, which Rex and a few Clones did. Unfortunately, the vast majority carried out the order without any objections when it was issued, just as they were “programmed” to do.


オーダー66を遂行するクローン (出典: starwars.com)

Clones executing Order 66 (Source: starwars.com)
The execution of Order 66 was swift and efficient, delivering the intended effect. With the Jedi Order annihilated, Palpatine (Darth Sidious) proclaimed himself Emperor and reorganized the Republic into the Galactic Empire, seizing complete political and military control. The contributions of the Clone Troopers were indispensable to the formation of this Empire, and Palpatine lavished praise on them for their gallant (appare) service. While their glorious deeds were widely publicized across the galaxy, these plaudits were ultimately no more than empty propaganda. In the eyes of Palpatine, the Clone Troopers were no more than tools that could be disposed of once they had served their purpose. The accelerated aging programming that sped up the growing process to quickly make the Clones battle-ready began to work against them, leaving them less fit for duty as they grew older. The Clones were “manufactured” for war, but with the end to the conflict with the Separatists that avenue of service all but evaporated. Ironically, there is a compelling case to be made that it was their gallant deeds (appare) which led to their own pathos (aware).
The Clones all had to deal with the question of the underlying purpose of their existence after being mustered out of service. There were probably more than a few who took pride in knowing that their service played a major role in the formation of the Empire. On the other hand, they were likely those who were tormented by the regret and guilt they felt for killing the Jedi commanders with whom they had developed a mutual trust and friendship. In addition, they were also those who despaired over their “wretched lot” of being cast aside, grappling with doubts about if it was even worth continuing on with their lives. Ultimately, this was a choice that each Clone had to make on his own, and that decision vividly reflected his own individuality. At the same time, this choice served as a reflection of his humanity.
There were some Clones who rejected the pathos of their existence and took a more affirmative outlook on their lives. Three such Clones were Rex, Wolff, and Gregor, all of whom removed the behavior control chips from their head. They accepted the fact they were slowly wasting away, but still found a way to apply their own experience and knowledge, which was joining the Rebellion in its fight against the Empire. In short, they accepted what it meant to be a Clone, but also made an affirmative choice to live out their lives as human beings. That is a gallant approach to life worth emulating.


レックス、グレガー、ウォルフ (出典: wookiegunner.com)

Rex, Greggor, and Wolffe (Source: wookiegunner.com)


「ザ・ライズ・オブ・スカイウォーカー」の邦訳を考察 Breaking Down the Japanese Title for The Rise of Skywalker

今年の4月中旬に全米で原題「ザ・ライズ・オブ・スカイウォーカー」が発表された約2ヶ月後の6月24日に遂にその邦題の「スカイウォーカーの夜明け」が解禁されました。ちょうど41年前の1978年6月24日にシリーズの第一作目「スター・ウォーズ エピソード4/新たなる希望」が日本で初公開された歴史的な日であることを考えると、この日に完結編となる作品の邦題を解禁するのは相応しいと思います。この邦題が発表されるまでの2ヶ月間に日本中のファンの間でどのような日本語がつけられるのか大きな話題を呼んで、ネット上では色んな予想が出ました。
The Japanese title for The Rise of Skywalker (Skywalker no Yoake) was finally announced on June 24, 2019, nearly two months after the title broke in the US. That day is steeped in Star Wars history for Japanese fans as it marks the day that Episode IV: A New Hope hit theaters here 41 years ago in 1978, making it a fitting occasion to release the Japanese title. The translation of the original English title was a hot topic for Japanese fans in that roughly two-month interval, with many posting their own interpretations online of what the Japanese title might be.



Star Wars made its Japan release in 1978. Photo from Nikkan Sports Shinbun.

There were some fans that argued in favor of going with the original English title and merely write the phonetic equivalent in Katakana (phonetic characters generally used to write words that came from another language). One fan on Twitter provided a compelling reason for why the English title would work best for the Japanese release. “Going with TROS matches up nicely with Episode I, which stuck with (English title) The Phantom Menace. The first and last episodes of the saga in their original English, with the Japanese translations for the rest. That would be the best way to close out the saga in my opinion.” That fan’s argument makes a lot of sense. Two other variants put forward by a number of fans were “スカイウォーカの誕生 (Skywalker no Tanjo)” and “スカイウォーカの復活 (Skywalker no Fukkatsu)”. The word “tanjo” literally means “birth”, which also signifies “beginning”. This links up well with the image of the sun “rising” to mark the beginning of each day, echoing the word in the original English title for Episode IX. Looking at “fukkatsu” in the other variant, this word conveys the idea of “once again” or “re (as in “repeat” or “return/come back”)”, providing a nice connection to the title of the film that marked the original end of the saga, Return of the Jedi. Interestingly enough, there were even some fans who actually came up with the same title as the official Japanese version, Skywalker no Yoake.



この邦題を英語に直訳しますと「The Dawn of Skywalker」となりますが、日本語の「夜明け」という単語にどのような意味合いが用いられているのでしょうか?まずその言葉を成り立つ字を分解してみましょう。「夜(よ)」は単独での訓読みは「よる」となり、英語ですと「night」と訳出されます。「明け(あけ)」は「明ける」の動詞語幹であり、いくつの意味を持っています。不思議なことにその中に「始まる」と「終わる」の意味合いが持っています。「新年が始まる」と意味を表すとき「年が明ける」という表現がその典型の一つです。その反対で「梅雨が明ける」という表現は「梅雨の時季が終わる」の意味を表しています。では、この二つの字を組み合わせた「夜明け」という単語は三省堂大辞林によりますと主に三つの意味が込められていますが、スカイウォーカーのサガの完結編のタイトルを考える上で特に注目すべきは下記の二つです。
The Japanese title translates back to English as The Dawn of Skywalker. So what exactly does the word “yoake” mean in Japanese? First we need to break down the two characters that make up the word. First is “夜(yo)”, which is also read as “yoru” on its own to signify the word “night.” Next is “明け(ake)”, the stem for the verb “akeru” which has a number of meanings. Interestingly enough this verb can be used to express both the ideas of “to begin” and “to end.” One common phrase employed to convey the idea of the start of the new year is “年が明ける(toshi ga akeru)”. The opposite is the case with the phrase “梅雨が明ける(tsuyu ga akeru),” which means “the rainy season comes to an end.” Together they make “yoake”, and the Daijirin Japanese-Japanese dictionary published by Sanseido lists three main definitions for the word. There are two in particular that warrant noting when considering the title for the film that completes the Skywalker saga.

1)    夜が明けること。太陽が昇る頃。明け方。(例)夜明けの前。
1)    The end of night. The time at which the sunrises. The start of a new day. (Ex.) “Right before the dawn”.
や「daybreak」もあり、この類似語により描かれるイメージは原題のタイトルにある「rise」に込めた意味合いと連想します。また、日が昇ると夜の闇が次第に消え去れ、世の中がその陽光に照らされます。これはライトサイドが優位に立つバランスをもたらすスカイウォーカーの本来の役目であるとも解釈できます。バランスという概念は「均衡」という状態を示していると捉えがちですが、フォースの場合は「均衡を保つ」というより「相殺(cancel out/offset)」や「制御(control/curb)」との解釈のほうが妥当ではないかと思います。光のあるところは必ず影が潜みます。日が昇ってもその陽光が「影」を作り出すの如し、フォースから闇たるダークサイドを完全に抹消するのは不可能です。それにしてもその闇をしっかり封じ込めてその力を相殺することが出来ます。
The Japanese word “yoake (夜明け)” can be translated back to English in a number of ways. The most common is “dawn”, but other common variants include “sunrise” and “daybreak”. All of these words portray an image of the sun coming up, which meshes well with the word “rise” in the original title. The rising of the sun steadily causes the darkness to dissipate, filling the world with light. This can be interpreted as representative of the balance in the Force the Skywalker clan was supposed to bring about, one in which the Light Side held the upper hand. The word “balance” for many people expresses the notion of a “perfect equilibrium”, but when it comes to matters of the Force, I feel that a more appropriate interpretation would be the idea of “canceling out/offsetting” or “controlling/curbing”. Indeed, wherever there is light one finds shadows, just like those that are created when the sun shines down from above. The dark elements are forever intertwined with those of the Light. That said, it is possible to contain this darkness and negate its power.




2)    新しい時代や事物が始まろうとする時。(列)新日本の夜明け
2) The start of a new age or something new. (Ex.) The dawn of a new Japan.
スターウォーズの新三作の主人公である「レイ(Rey)」の名前は英語の単語の「ray」を連想させ、それは「ray of light」のような「光」の意味合いの強い表現を思い浮かばせます。では、このスカイウォーカーのサガ―を完結するに当たってレイはどのような役目を果たすのでしょうか?拙僧から見ますとそれは「スカイウォーカーの遺産を継いで、しっかりと過去と決別して銀河系に新な時代へ導く灯台になる」という使命ではないかと思います。確かに、スカイウォーカーの「夜明け(始まり)」は惑星タトゥイーンにてクワイ・ガン・ジンとアナキンの運命的な出逢いになります。クワイ・ガン・ジンを始め多くのジェダイはアナキンが選ばれし者であったと信じていたけど、想像した筋書きと違う形でその予言を成し遂げました。一方、アナキンが暗黒面に陥ってしまった結果、ジェダイオーダーの夕焼けが訪れたが、他方ではその堕落がすべてを白紙に戻しました。要するに、スカイウォーカーの台頭により銀河におけるフォースの均衡が「リセット」され、一から造り直す土台を整えました。そう考えると、「スカイウォーカーの夜明け」というタイトルには「スカイウォーカーがもたらした新時代へ繋ぐ夜明け」という意味合いが織り込まれているとも解釈できます。ルークがレイに託したのはこの新時代のフォース使いの模範となるという使命、そしてレイアが託したのは希望の光を照らし続けるという使命でした。邦訳のタイトルから察すると、エピソード9で描かれるのは新たなる希望となったレイがどのようにその使命とスカイウォーカーの遺産を継いで新時代を明けるかという展開になるかも知れません。そうすると銀河にとって「ライズアブスカイウォーカー」の意義が立証されるではないかと思います。「夜明け」にある「明ける」が「終わる」と「明ける」の両意味が持ち合わせている如し、スカイウォーカーの台頭が前の時代に終止符を打って、新時代を切り開きました。
Rey is the central protagonist of the sequel trilogy, and her name naturally connects to the English word “ray”, bringing to mind expressions with strong associations to light, such as “ray of light”. The question on many people’s minds is what role will Rey play in terms of completing the Skywalker saga. I believe her purpose will be to carry on the Skywalker legacy, breaking with the past and becoming the beacon of light leading the galaxy into a new age. In a certain sense, the “dawn” of Skywalker goes back to the fateful encounter between Qui Gon Jinn and Anakin Skywalker on the planet of Tatooine. Qui Gon and many Jedi in the Order believed Anakin was the “Chosen One”, but the way in which he fulfilled that prophecy was unlike how they imagined it would turn out. Anakin fell to the Dark Side, and with that brought about the twilight of the Jedi. At the same time, his descent effectively wiped the slate clean. In short, the “rise” of Skywalker reset the balance of the Force in the galaxy, laying the groundwork for a brand new start. In that light, the “dawn of Skywalker” can be viewed as “dawn of the new age ushered in by Skywalker”. Luke charged Rey with becoming the model for Force wielders in this new age, while Leia’s mission for her is to keep shining as that light of hope. Based on the implications of the Japanese title, Episode IX may show us how Rey takes up the mantles bequeathed to her and carries on the Skywalker legacy, new hope lighting the way in this new age. In the end, this would provide the validation for the rise of Skywalker in the eyes of the galaxy. Just as the Japanese verb “akeru” in the word “yoake” carries the connotations of both “to end” and “to begin,” the rise of Skywalker brought about the end of the previous age and opened the door to the next one.



Anakin surveying the dawn