自然に対する日本のデュアル価値観:その両面性を受ける Japan's Dualistic View of Nature: Accepting Both Sides of the Same Coin 

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頭を探しに森を食い尽くすシシガミ(もののけ姫)

Shishigami devouring the forest in search of his head (Princess Mononoke)

 

2014年9月末に御嶽山の噴火のニュース報道を見て、自然が突如に「鬼の面」を表す瞬間を描く生存者の話を聞いたとき、東日本大震災の一周年の記念で放送した特集に登場した梅原猛の話を思い出しまた。仏教伝来を遥かに遡った古から日本列島で育まれた「神道」は自然の両面を崇拝すると同時に警戒していました。自然の恐ろしさに捧げ物することによって、恐ろしい自然を恵みの自然に変えていく。自然は一面怖い暴君の恐ろしさを持つと同時に、一面慈母のような優しい面を持ちます。梅原先生の話を簡単に要約しますと、神道は自然と人間を分けず、そのデュアルの価値観を大切にしています。

 

When I watched the news reports on the eruption of Mt. Ontake at the end of September 2014, the survivor’s harrowing accounts of how Mother Nature suddenly reared its “demonic side” reminded me of a special documentary made a year after the Great East Japan Earthquake. This documentary featured the Japanese scholar Takashi Umehara, and during the course of the program he described how long before Buddhism came to Japan, the people of these islands both revered and feared the two faces of nature through Shinto. Within Shinto, people gave offerings in an effort to appease the fearsome side of nature and transform this power into a source of bounty and blessing. Shinto essentially acknowledges that nature is both an awful tyrant and charitable mother figure. Based on this understanding, Umehara argued that Shinto does not distinguish between nature and man, but rather emphasizes a dualistic view that brings the two together.

 

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旅順攻囲戦 (日露戦争1904-05)

Siege of Port Arthur (Russo-Japan War 1904-05)

出所: JACAR

Source: JACAR

 

火の輪が生み出した列島に身を寄せた民族が絞り出したこの智恵であり、それは必然な結果であろうと思います。従って、そのデュアル価値観に基づいた「自然との共存」を目指したではないかと思います。「共存」は「共に存在する」を意味とし、それは まさにデュアルの意味でもあります。梅原氏によりますと、その二面は西洋文明が忘れていました。西洋文明は人間中心主義で、それは科学技術文明を生み出しました。人間中心主義に基づいて成り立ったこの科学技術文明から見ますと、自然は人間の役に立つものとしか捉えないし、その結果この文明が生み出す「文明の利器」を利用して自然を好きのように制御しようとします。明治に開国して富国強兵(いわゆる “大日本主義”)で突っ走った日本もこの西洋文明を取り入れて、そのお土産として科学技 術文明を頂きました。確かに国がより豊にしましたが、その文明が要する資源は日本が乏しく、それを手に入れるために国外へ目を向かざるを得なかったです。結局、それは日清戦争日露戦争日韓併合満州建国への道に繋がります。

 

It seems to me that this approach was the source of wisdom and inevitable outcome arrived at by the peoples who came to these islands created by the Ring of Fire. That’s probably why they sought to live based on a dualistic view that stressed “living in harmony with nature”. The Japanese word kyōzon (共存, coexistence) is simply an abbreviated form of the phrase tomo ni sonzai suru (共に存在する, co-existing together), and is a perfect representation of this dualism. Umehara claims that the dualistic view stressed by Shinto is something the West has forgotten. Western culture is first and foremost human-centric, and this human-first approach is what gave rise to a culture founded upon science and technology. This kind of culture views nature only as a means for serving the needs of humanity, and as a result many of the “modern conveniences” this culture produces are designed to enable humanity to control nature as it sees fit. Japan incorporated this Western culture after it opened up to the West in the Meiji era (1868-1912) and plunged headlong into its quest to build a “rich country under a strong military” (the so-called “Big Japan” vision). In taking on elements of Western culture, it also received its corresponding culture of science and technology as an added “bonus”. This “set” of cultures did indeed help to make Japan a much wealthier country, but each required natural resources that Japan sorely lacked, causing the nation to turn its eyes outward to secure the resources it needed to pursue the Big Japan vision it had adopted. To put a long story short, this plotted the course for the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, the annexation of Korea, and finally the establishment of Manchukuo.

 

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2016年4月に相次いだ地震で崩れた熊本城の石垣。

Crumbled stone foundation of Kumamoto Castle following the earthquakes in April 2016

 

 

現在までに早送りして、西洋文明を通して日本の神道の礎の上に植え付けたこの科学技術文明は、先で述べたように「自然を制服しようとする」という考え方を生み出します。ニュースでは「何故この噴火を予知できなかった」という問いかけや、地震予測に膨大の研究費を投資することも、やっぱり全ては「自然は制御できるべきものである」という考え方による発言(や行動)です。このように捉えてしまいますと、予知できなかったことは失敗と捉えてしまい、研究に投資した膨大な融資は無駄であったと捉えてしまいます。でも、これらを 失敗であると決めづけるは間違いと私が思っています。そもそも自然は制御できるものにあらず、古から人間の生活や社会を左右したものであります。文明の利器の発達によって西洋文明に染めた現在の文明はこの教訓を忘れていると思います。だから、梅原氏が唱える自然の両面を受け止めて、その一つずつに合わせてどのように生活できればいいかを真剣に考えなければならないです。

 

Fast forward to the present, and it seems that this culture of science and technology Japan received from the West and implanted upon its Shinto base “seeks to subjugate nature” as in the manner previously described. When we watch the news, we hear people say things like “why couldn’t they have predicted that eruption?” The same is true for the massive amount of money that is spent funding research on earthquake prediction, for pretty much every statement (or action) made is based on the idea that “nature is something which should (can) be controlled.” But if we always view events this way, the fact we couldn’t predict the occurrence of these disasters is perceived as a failure, and all that money pumped into research is considered to be a mere waste of funds. I think it’s wrong for us to completely write this off as a failure. We must remember that the forces of nature are beyond control, and that they have held sway over human life and society since ancient times. Contemporary society and culture, which are heavily dominated by the traditions of Western culture fostered through the advancement of its “modern conveniences”, has largely forgotten this basic lesson. Just as Umehara argues, we need to accept both faces of nature, and then seriously consider how to best adapt the way we live to each of them.

降神(オリガミ)を通して拡大する日本語のヒップホップの可能性 Origami: Broadening the potential of Japanese hip-hop

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日本語を取得するまでは長い道であって、独学での試行錯誤の積み重ねで少しずつその能力を培ってきました。勉強の手段は多岐に渡りましたが、特に遣り甲斐かつ効果的であるものと感じたのは音楽鑑賞でした。当然J-Popから入って、その分かりやすい歌詞(椎名林檎は例外ですが)で語彙をだいぶ増やしましたが、その反面でその曲のほとんどは中身がもの足りないと感じてより意味深いものを求め始めました。ちょうど11年前に、日本語能力試験の2級(上級)を合格した後の2006年の春の頃、ある日に仕事の後に職場の近くにあったDisk Unionという店に入ってアンダーグラウンドのヒップホップのアーティストのアルバムが置いてあった棚を見てみることにしました。すぐに目に入ったのはその店の店長がお勧めした「降神」というグループでした。

The road to mastery of the Japanese language has been a long one of self-study, characterized by repeat trial and error through which I have built up my language skills. I have applied a number of different methods, but one that I have found particularly satisfying and effective has been listening to music. Naturally I started with J-Pop, and thanks to the straight-forward lyrics (those of Shiina Ringo aside) I was able to amass quite a bit of vocabulary. That said, I found most of the songs to be lacking in substance, and began to search out for something with more depth and meaning. About 11 years ago in the spring of 2006, shortly after I had passed the 2 kyuu (advanced level) of the Japanese Language Proficiency Test, I decided to head into the Disk Union by my office after work and check out the underground hip hop artists’ albums on the shelves. The first to catch my eye was this group called Origami (降神), which was one of the recommended picks of the store manager.

 

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2003頃の降神

Origami circa 2003

 

最初その名を見たとき基本的な漢字の読み方に基づいて「こうしん」と読むかなと思ったけど、その後にCDが置いてあった棚に貼ってあったカードに載っていたグループの紹介文を読んでから「おりがみ」と読むことを知りました。「うん、こういう単語遊びは殊に深いな」と思って、そして衝動的に購入しました。「おりがみ」といえば日本を代表する芸術の一つである紙を折って作品を作る美術が思い浮かびますが、この降神というグループは同じ読み方を持つ「降」と「神」を組み合わせて訓読みを活かすことによって「神が降りる」というイメージを醸し出したことは印象的でした。これで期待できるではないかとその時に思いました。

I initially thought the group’s name was read “Kōshin”, based on the Kanji characters that formed the name. However, upon reading the introduction of the group written on the card pasted on the shelf, I learned that they actually read it as “Origami”. This interesting play on words really struck me, and so I decided to buy the album right there on the spot. The word origami generally brings to mind the paper-folding art for which Japan is renowned, but in this instance the group used the kun-yomi (Japanese reading) of the Kanji characters to convey the idea of “God descending to earth.” This image left a deep impression on me, and heightened my expectations for the group.

 

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降神のデビューアルバム (2003)

Origami's debut album (2003)

 

アルバムの最初の曲はその期待を遥かに超え、あの印象は今も鮮明に覚えています。「完全にこのグループの虜にされているんだ」と思いました。その時までに聞いたことはなかった形で日本語のリリックを変幻自在に繰り広げ、その長けた表現方法が非常に斬新かつ抽象的でもありました。このアルバムと巡り会う前は日本語に於ける表現や言葉の使い分けがはっきり決まっているという思い込みを抱えていましたが、降神の歌詞がその思い込みを完全に打ち破って、日本語の自由度の高さを思い知らせてくれました。敢えて言うなら、彼らが生み出した叙情的な曲は俺が求めてきた日本語の在り様を具現していました。例えば最初の曲である「時計の針」にこういうリリックがあります:「七つ葉のクローバー グローバルに広がる日の丸 これ以上にグレーイゾーンに近づく 力尽く」。英語と日本語を絶妙に混ぜて、その二つの言語の言葉の韻を踏んで、その特徴を巧みに活かしています。また、曲の礎となるビートとトラックは意外にもウータンクランのリザーが醸し出す雰囲気に近い感じも窺えました。

I still vividly recall my initial impression of the group, with the first song on the album more than exceeding my expectations. Listening to it, I knew there that these guys had fully converted me into a fan. They spun surreal lyrics unlike any I heard in Japanese up until that time, bringing together words in a way that was incredibly fresh yet abstract. I used to think that Japanese was a language in which words and phrases had “set” uses, but with the lyrics on this album, Origami helped to shatter that preconception and show me how free-flowing the language can be. In a certain respect, the lyrical tracks they crafted embodied the style of Japanese I had sought. Take this line from the first track, Tokei no Hari (The Clock Hands): “Nanatsuba no kuroba (clover), gurobaru (global) ni hirogaru hi-no-maru… kore ijō ni gurei (gray) zōn (zone) ni chikadzuku, chikara tsuku (Seven leaf clover, Japanese flag spreading across the globe, its strength set to give out if it gets any closer to the gray zone).” This line demonstrates how deftly they mix Japanese and English, creating rhymes with both languages and expertly employing their unique characteristics. Another thing about this song that caught my attention was the beat and track, which unexpectedly evoked the atmosphere produced by the Wu Tang Clan’s RZA.

 

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降神は拙僧にとって初めての日本のヒップホップではなかったです。以前はキックザーカンクルー、ケツメイシリップスライムなどを聞いたこともありましたし、そういうグループが作り出すヒップホップは非常に楽しくかつ完成度の高いものでもありましたが、一言で総評しますと「やや軽い」との印象です。一方、降神が編み出すヒップホップは耳を楽しませる「音」の上にかなり内容の濃いリリックを乗せて、多岐に渡るテーマを取り上げる曲を作り出すとは違うところでした。そこで繰り広げるリリックが描く「世界」はきっと心地よい境地ではないです。それは不祥事まみれ政治、東京という大都会における日常生活の孤独さ、戦後日本が成し遂げた高度経済成長を経てバブル景気の崩壊に伴って崩れた自信、空虚な物質主義に支配される現在の日本社会という現実。決して明るくではないですが、このアルバムの全編を通して貫通する点を挙げますとその現実に目を逸らさずに、とにかく受け止めて、生きていくことです。

Origami was not my first introduction to Japanese hip-hop. I had previously been exposed to groups such as Kick the Can Crew, Ketsumeishi, and Rip Slyme, and while their style of hip-hop was extremely fun and finely crafted, they all came off as a little too lighthearted. In contrast, Origami took the “fun” sound of hip-hop and added a layer composed of deep lyrics that covered a broad spectrum of themes. That’s what set them apart. The world portrayed within the lyrics flowing through the tracks was far from lighthearted. Origami depicted a reality characterized by politics mired in scandal, the sense of isolation pervading everyday life in the mega-metropolis that is Tokyo, the loss of confidence following the collapse of the Bubble economy in the wake of postwar Japan’s hyper economic growth, the empty materialism that holds sway over Japanese society today. While it is not exactly uplifting, I feel the underlying theme of the album is not to turn away from this reality, but to come to grips with it and continue pushing forward.

 

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さて、このアルバムで降神の醍醐味を存分に楽しませる曲を挙げようとしたら、すぐに思い浮かぶのは「鬼畜舞踏会」という曲です。降神の独特の「味」が鮮明に反映されているこの曲ですが、ある意味でアルバムの絶頂であるとも言えます。この曲についてあるブログの記事はこう評価しました:「この曲は3拍子で構成されている楽曲で、内容は支離滅裂ながらも見事に腐敗した日本を歌っている。」何回もこの曲を繰り返して聴くと、まさにその通りだと思います。また、そのタイトルに用いられている仏教用語もそのテーマをよく補っていると思います。「鬼畜」とは仏教の概念である六道のうち「餓鬼道」と「畜生道」の二道を併せた「餓鬼畜生」の略語です。「餓鬼」とは生前に贅沢をしたため、餓鬼道に落ちた亡者を表しており、いくら食べても飢えを満たすことが出来ません。これはまさに物質主義に翻弄される現在社会のことを仄めかしていると思います。畜生というのは人間を除く動物の総称であります。仏教においては、畜生は生前に不平が多く感謝の念を持たなかった者が転生した姿であり、苦しみが多く肉親を残害する存在とされます。これはまた人を自己中に仕向けられる物質主義の副作用を指しているではないかとも解釈できると思います。曲の頭の歌詞の意味と踏んだ韻がその支離滅裂感を創り出し、雪崩の如しその狂った展開へ導かれます。では、この曲を堪能するために下記の通り歌詞とその対訳・ローマ字を掲載しますので、どうぞうご鑑賞ください。英訳は拙僧が作ったものでもありますので、改善する余地はまだあると思いますが、降神が醸し出す世界観の参考になって頂けたら幸いです。

If I had to pick one track that allows you to fully enjoy the essence of Origami’s hip-hop, the first that comes to mind is Kichiku Butōkai (Ball of Fiends). This track vividly reflects Origami’s unique flavor and style, and in a certain respect represents the climax of the album. One blog post I came across had this to say about Ball of Fiends: “This track in three-part time, chaotic as it may be, paints an excellent depiction of Japanese society’s decay.” I can’t help but agree with this sentiment as I listen to this song time and time again. In addition, the Buddhist terminology employed in the title does a nice job of further elaborating on that theme. “鬼畜 (kichiku)” is an abbreviation for the word “餓鬼畜生 (gaki-chikushō)”, which is itself a combination of the words for two of the six posthumous worlds in the Buddhist cycle of transmigration. “餓鬼 (gaki)” refers to the hungry ghost realm into which people who led a life of excessive luxury fall when they die. Those who pass through this realm are never able to satiate their hunger, no matter how much they eat. I believe this is a reference to contemporary society held in the sway of materialism. “畜生 (chikushō) refers to all animals other than human beings. In Buddhism, these are the beings who are reborn as animals because they were unhappy with what they had been given in their previous life and generally ungrateful. As animals, their souls were destined to suffer pain and be the source of suffering for their own blood relatives. I feel this can be interpreted as a reference to the side effects of materialism, which causes people to become self-centered. The meaning of the lyrics at the top of the track and the accompanying rhyme scheme seemingly create an avalanche that plunges us headlong onto a frenzied ride. To help experience this song for what it’s worth, I have pasted in the lyrics below along with the Romanized pronunciation of the Japanese and my own translation. While I’m sure the translation could be made better, I hope it allows you to peer inside the world Origami create through their music.

 

トラックは下記のリンクで拝聴できます。可愛らしい猫の絵は曲とあまり関係ありませんが。

Click on the link below to hear the track. The cute cat pic has nothing to do with the song though.

http://embed.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm17304803

 

[鬼畜舞踏会]

Kichiku Butō Kai (Ball of Fiends)

 

 

降神 feat. 心 and aQz

Origami (Shibito, Nanoru Namonai) feat. Kokoro and aQz

 

(志人) (Shibito)

バブル崩壊 鬼畜舞踏会 猿受動態 いじくる脳内

Baburu (bubble) hokai kichiku butō kai saru judotai ijikuru nōnai

くるくる回る 胡桃割り人形 狂わせるまるで人魚

Kuru kuru mawaru kurumi-wari ningyō kuruwaseru marude ningyō

めくるめく フラッシュ! バック!

Mekuru meku furashu (flash)! Bakku (Back)!

ピンポンパン 鬼ごっこ

Ping pong pang, oni-gokko

新婚さん パトリオット ミサイル

Shinkon-san Patoriotto (Patriot) misairu (missile)

あと二度と戻れない道をリサイクルして

Ato nido to modorenai michi wo risaikuru (recycle) shite

元に戻す細工likeイスラエル

Moto ni modosu saiku like Isuraeru (Israel)

エホバの証人の胸にベポラップ塗りたくるベトナム

Ehoba (Ehova) no shōnin no mune ni heporappu nuritaku naru betonamu (Vietnam)

エゴラップばっかりのニーズに対してドラッグにはまるなら

Ego-rappu bakari no niizu (needs) ni taishite doraggu (drug) ni hamaru nara

ビーンズだけを愛して娯楽

Biinzu dake wo aishite goraku

日出ずる国から生き返る我国カラクリ奈落に落とし首カットする

Hi-izuru kuni kara ikigaeru waga kuni karakuri naraku ni otoshite kubi katto (cut) suru

フリスピースkeeping operation Asian

Furisupiisu ( ) keeping operation Asian

なめんなここに当ててごらん

Namen na koko ni atete goran

で御覧のチャンネルはペトちゃんドクちゃんくっ付くまで待ち惚け

Goran no chaneru (channel) wa peto-chan doku-chan kuttsuku made machiboke

緑茶を含み越えて38度線 この世の終わりATSアジトで

Ryokucha fukumi koete sanju-hachi (38) do-sen kono yo no owari ATS ajito de

 

shall we dance shall we dance shall we dance shall we dance

shall we dance shall we dance shall we dance shall we dance……

 

(Shibito)

Bubble burst, ball of fiends, monkey passive tense messing with the mind

Spin round & round, a nutcracker, driving people mad just like a mermaid

Flipping pages in a frenzy, flash… back!

Ping pang pong! Tag, you’re it!

Yo newlyweds, a Patriot missile.

Recycle that road you’ll never come back to

A piece of craftsmanship restored to its original state like Israel

Vietnam, feel like rubbing vapor rub on the chest of a Jehovah’s Witness

If you gonna get hooked on drugs to deal with your ego-wrap needs

Then “beans”(*1) are all you’ll need so enjoy

Resurrect from the land of the Rising Sun, cut your throat as a little trick plunges our country to the very bottom

Freeze, peace (*2)… keeping operation Asian

Don’t mess with me, take a stab right here

Peto-chan and Doku-chan on the TV channel, you wait vainly for the remote buttons to stick

Even green tea goes past the 38 degree line (*3)

Witness the world’s end from the ATS (*4) hideout

 

Shall we dance Shall we dance Shall we dance Shall we dance

Shall we dance Shall we dance Shall we dance Shall we dance……

 

(心) (Kokoro)

犯す間違い 助からない 上限は無い 冗談じゃない

Okasu machigai tasukaranai jōgen wa nai jōdan ja nai

呆けた勘違い 救いが無い 自己中極まりない

Aketa kanchigai sukui ga nai jikochuu-kiwamari nai

汚職愛減らない 改善がない 反省がない 信念もない

Oshoku-ai heranai kaizen ga nai hansei ga nai shinnen mo nai

取り留めない 止めどが無い 腐蝕 止めてもない

Toritomenai tomedo ga nai fushoku tomete mo nai

嘘情報垂れ流すだけでマスコミ 保身官僚政治 カスかゴミ

Uso jōhō tarenagasu dake masukomi hoshin kanryō seiji kasu ka gomi

判断力低下国民 選挙できますかって確認 無自覚に

Handan ryōku teika kokumin senkyo dekimasu ka tte kakunin mujikaku ni

陥った催眠解禁 危機感管理各自断行する今狼煙上げろ

Ochiitta saimin kaikin kiki kanri kakuji dankō suru ima noroshi agerō

 

(Kokoro)

Mistakes made, no help for it, no limit, no joking about it

Befuddled misunderstanding, beyond salvation, an egotism that knows no bounds

No end to this love for political scandal, no reform, no remorse, no conviction

Rambling on, no sign of stopping, no stop to the corrosion

Mass media oozing nothing but fake news, government bureaucrats looking out only for themselves, be they dregs or trash

Quick check on whether judgement degraded citizens can take part in elections… unconsciously

Lift the ban on the hypnotic state that drops, everyone tackle this crisis on your own, now raise that smoke signal

 

(aQz)

えー 狂乱の時代に幕開け 拍手拍手拍手 狂気を学習

Ehh… Kyōran no jidai ni maku-ake hakushu hakushu kyōki wo gakushuu

無我夢中で白昼堂々深く吸う人の肉と欲の悪臭

Muga-muchuu de hakuchuu dōdō fukaku suu hito no niku to yoku no akushuu

必要以上の情報を圧縮してダウンロードするコピーロボット集まる某有名進学塾

Hitsuyō ijō no jōhō wo ashuku shite daunrōdo (download) suru kopi (copy) robotto (robot) atsumaru bōyuumei shingakujuku

行きっぱなしの通学電車の中 半裸の美少女が恍惚とした表情を見せる中刷り広告

Iki-ppanashi no shingaku densha no naka han-hadaka bishōjo ga kōkotsu to shita hyōjō wo miseru nakazuri kōkoku

をズリネタにスカートの中擦りつけた欲望

Wo zurineta ni sukaato (skirt) no nakazuri tsuketa yokubō

スカトロプレイ歪んだ愛情の排泄行為

Sukatoro purei (play) yuganda aijō no haisetsu kōi

吐いて捨てるほどに食って飲んで吸ったあげく空っぽの自分を抱いて眠る夜

Haite suteru hodo ni kutte nonde sutta ageku karappo no jibun wo daite neru yoru

位置 見る悪夢が持つリアリティー いまいち焦点の合わない毎日

Ichi miru akuma ga motsu riaritii (reality) ima-ichi shōten no awanai mainichi

他人に囲まれて一対一になれない俺とあんたは殺るか殺られるか

Tanin ni kakomarete ittai ni narenai ore to anta wa yaru ka yarareru ka?

見方を変えればやらせて終わる敵か味方のデジタル原理主義現実に

Mikata wo kaereba yarasete owaru teki ka mikata no dijitaru (digital) genrishugi genjitsu ni

流れ込む妄想の堰を切る

Nagarekomu mōsō no seki wo kiru

咳が出る今席を立つ常識 狂った好奇心

Seki ga deru ima seki wo tatsu jōshiki kurutta kōkishin

知りたがりは死にたがり八方塞がり

Shiritagari wa shinitagari happō fusagari

だから一歩下がり見てみれば悲しくも滑稽なこの世界美しいものなのかもしれませんね

Dakara ippo sagari mite mireba kanashiku mo kokkei na kono sekai utsukushii mono kamo shiremasen ne

 

(aQz)

Alright… Round of applause for the age of madness upon us

Feverishly breathe in the stench of human flesh and greed in broad daylight

A well-known cram school where copy-cat robots who download more information than they need congregate

Scantily-cad teenage girls in a trance staring back at you from ads on that train headed to school

Selling eroticism, desire tucked away inside their skirts

Scatological play, the twisted act of love that is defecation

Vomit up then eat, drink, smoke more than you can throw away, after which you hug your empty self and say good night

Location… The reality in the nightmare you see, everyday focus that doesn’t quite align

Surrounded by strangers, never face-to-face, kill or be killed, it’s you and me

Change perspective and bring it to an end

Cut the dam to this river of delusion of this digitally fundamentalist reality of friend vs. foe

A cough slips, common sense stands up from its seat, a twisted curiosity

Take a step back from this trap where in which to seek knowledge is to seek death

And take a look at this sad & hilarious world that just may be beautiful after all

 

(ナノルナモナイ) (Nanoru Namonai)

ファ クルッ パ 風が舞って

Faux creux pas, kaze ga matte

Un deux trois ワルツのリズムでダンス

Un deux trois warutsu (waltz) no rizumu (rhythm) de dansu (dance)

鬼畜舞踏会 踊り出すカンフーガール案ずるが如く狂う歯車

Kichiku butō kai odoridasu kanfu (kung fu) gaaru (girl) anzuru ga gotoku kuruu haguruma

三途の川 直行坂道転がる乳母車

Sansu no kawa chokkō sakamichi korogaru ubaguruma

くるくる回る胡桃割り人形 狂わせるまるで人魚 めくるめく フラッシュ バック

Kuru kuru mawaru kurumi-wari ningyō kuruwaseru marude ningyō mekuru meku furashu (flash) baku (back)

精神病棟から抜け出して踊り出す 誰もがダンス

Seishinbyōtō kara nukedashite odoridasu wo daremo ga dansu (dance)

ドン金正日 ロンドンから日本全土にテポドン

Don Kim Jon Il Rondon (London) kara Nippon zendo ni Te Po Dong (Taepodong)

 

(Nanoru Namonai)

Faux creux pas (*5) the wind dances

Un deux trois dance to that waltz rhythm

Ball of fiends, Kung Fu girl breaking out into dance with a fearful look betraying screws gone loose

River Hades, with a baby carriage hurtling straight there on a downward slope

Spin round & round, a nutcracker, driving people mad just like a mermaid

Flipping pages in a frenzy, flash… back!

Break out of the mental asylum and start dancing, anyone can dance

Taepodong to London and all across Japan, compliments Kim Jong Il, El Don

 

Shall we dance Shall we dance Shall we dance Shall we dance

Shall we dance Shall we dance Shall we dance Shall we dance……

 

出所:アルバムのリーフレット

Source: Album leaflet

 

(*1) I’m not exactly sure what “beans” refers to here. Could not find any reference online. Perhaps some form of pill.

(*2) Phonetically this is what it sounds like he is saying, but could not verify.

(*3) Reference to the ideal temperature for green tea (38℃) and the border between North and South Korea (38th parallel)

(*4) ATS is Origami's record label

(*5) Phonetically this is what it sounds like he is saying in French, but could not verify.

終戦の日に思いを寄せて Thoughts on August 15, the End of the War Day

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日本にきてから今年は14年になりますが、第二母国で過ごした年数が積み重ねるに伴って、この日に寄せる思いが増々大きくなってきました。
This year will mark 14 years since I came to Japan, and with each passing year that I spend in my second homeland, the more I dwell upon this day each time it comes around.

 

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玉音放送を聞く市民。

Citizens listening to the Emperor's radio broadcast of Japan's surrender.

 

拙僧は変わった少年であって、小学生の頃から歴史の本ばかりを読み貪りました。歴史に魅惑し続けて、大学に入ってその傾倒に従って世界史に専攻すことにしました。拙僧は常に歴史と現実をどのように結びついているかを鑑みるクセがあります。日本に来てからそのクセが更にひどくなりました(恥)。そして、72年前に終わったこの戦争は現在に至ってどのような余韻を残したかを理解するように研究を積み重ねてきました。
I was a strange child, I must admit, and read pretty much nothing but books about history since the time I was in elementary school. History fascinated me, and that fascination led me to major in World History when I entered university. I have a habit of always contemplating on how the annals of history connect to the present. That habit has only gotten worse since I've come to Japan (sorry!). This has led me to conduct my own research in an effort to understand the lingering afterglow this war has left since it reached it's conclusion 72 years ago.

 

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日本語をあるていどマスターしてから日本側から見る太平洋戦争の体験に関する資料をたくさん読んで、両国の事情とそれぞれの歴史背景を鑑みながらより大局的にこの戦争を見るようにしています。言葉は本当に不思議なことで、言葉を理解するようになることによって「相手」に感情移入できるし、その人間性が現れてきます。また、その相手が抱えた葛藤をより鮮明に見えてきます。
After mastering the basics of Japanese, I read a lot of material on the Japanese experience of WW2. Taking what I have learned from these studies, I am always trying to see the bigger picture from both sides and get a better understanding of this conflict. Language is truly a curious medium in that when we understand another language, it becomes much easier for us to identify with "the other" and recognize their human qualities. Their own personal struggles also become much more apparent.

 

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峻烈な戦場で必死にお互いを殺し合ったりする日米兵の本当の敵はお互いではなく、「戦争」そのものでした。どの戦争でもそうであるかも知れません。とにかく地上の地獄でした。今年の8月15日は終戦から今年は72年となり、この戦争を体験した日本人とアメリカ人の数は年々に減りつつであります。
Japanese and American soldiers were pitted against each other in a gruesome struggle of life death on the horrific fields of war. Yet, it seems that their enemy was not each other, but "war" itself. Perhaps that is the case with any war, but one fact is for certain. War is hell. August 15th this year marks the 72nd anniversary to the end of this conflict, and with each passing year the number of Japanese and Americans who lived through it is growing ever smaller.

 

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東京大空襲焼夷弾に燃やされた市民。撮影:石川光陽
Citizens burned by incendiary bombs during the Great Tokyo Bomb Raid. Photo: Koyo Ishikawa

ときに過去と向き合うのは難しいですが、醜くてもやっぱり向き合う必要があります。拙僧はこの投稿で過去にあったことを正当化するか美化するかつもりはありません。拙僧は今にこの戦争をよくわかっていると言えません。とにかく、この映像を見ながら、心を静まってもう一度その時代について考えてみたいと思います。
At times it can be difficult to face the past, but no matter horrific it may be, we still need to come to grips with it. I don't intend to justify what was done in the past or beautify anything with the words I pen in this post. Even now, I can't really say that I understand this war. For now, I would like take a moment to quiet my mind, watch this scene, and reflect back on that time.

www.youtube.com

漫画へうげものとスターウォーズ:シスの復讐で描かれる業火への道 The Road to Goka in the Manga Hyougemono and Revenge of the Sith

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日本に在住したこの13年以上、日本語だけではなく、日本の文化と宗教観に対する理解をさらに深まるように尽力してきました(いや、今もそれが進行中)。そして、その「日本フィルタ」を通してスターウォーズ(以降SW)を改めてみると、新たな視点からその物語を垣間見ることができます。

I have spent more than 13 and half years of my life in Japan, and during that time I have worked hard (or rather still working) to deepen my knowledge of not only the Japanese language, but also the culture and religious perspective of the country. This "Japan filter" has provided me with new insight and perspective into repeat viewings of the Star Wars (SW) saga.

 

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SWの第一話~6話までの主人公であるアナキンスカイウォーカーがダースベイダーに生まれ変わるシーンに対して新たな解釈の一枚を与えた日本語の単語があります:「業火」。この単語は元々仏教の用語であり、辞書でその意味を調べますとこのようなことが書かれています:「悪業(あくごう)が身を滅ぼすのを火にたとえていう語。また、罪人を焼き苦しめる地獄の火。」この言葉を成り立つ漢字を分解しますと「業」と「火」となり、その二つの字が描くイメージからその意味を何とか察することもできます。

There is one Japanese word that has added a new layer of interpretation to the scene in which Anakin Skywalker, the protagonist of the SW saga, becomes Darth Vader: 業火 (goka). The word "goka" comes from Buddhism, and the meaning listed in the dictionary goes something like this: "Analogy that likens the evil deeds one commits to a fire that envelopes them. Also the fires of hell that inflict suffering upon the wicked." The two characters that make up this word, 業 and 火, convey the ideas of "deeds" and "fire", making it easy to surmise what the meaning of the word is. 


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辞書に載っている意味は確かに分かりやすくて、その言葉が表す苦しみを簡単に想像できますが、本来は仏教において更なる深い意味合いが織り込まれています。 まず、仏教によりますと、すべての生き物は煩悩(ぼんのう)に満ちている限り、悪業を重ねざるを得ません。自分が悪業の結果すごく苦しむことを、火に焼かれ苦しむことがまさに「業火」ということなのです。煩悩といえば、その一つは力に対する欲望であるともいえるでしょう。

The dictionary definition is pretty straight forward, making it easy to conjure up the images of suffering it conveys. However, the original meaning in its Buddhist context is actually deeper. Buddhism states that people are doomed to pile up iniquities so long as they remain consumed by worldly passions and carnal desires. In this sense, we can classify a lust for power as one of these so-called passions and desires.

 

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「業火」という単語を始めて出逢ったのは「へうげもの」という漫画の中でした。漫画の主人公である古田織部茶の湯の師匠であった千利休が昔の親友であるヘチカンを訪れたシーンの中で「業火」の単語が出てきます。そのシーンで描かれる会話は下記の通りです。

The first time I came across the word "goka" was in the manga Hyougemono. The scene in which it is used depicts Sen no Rikyuu, the tea master of the story's protagonist Furuta Oribe, paying a visit to an old friend Hechikan. Here is the conversation exchanged between the two. 

 

千利休:「何をなさっておるのです?」

Sen no Rikyu: What have you been doing as of late?
ヘチカン:「ワシももう永くない。書物やら道具やら、少しづつ処分しておるのよ。どうだい?おまえさんも身の回りを片づけたら。風雅は身と共に終わるべしってな」

Hechikan: I don't have much longer. Little by little, I've been getting rid of my writings and tea vessels. The fate of all these refined trappings will be the same as mine. 
千利休:「・・・あまり、感心しませんな」

Sen no Rikyu: I pictured you doing something much grander.
ヘチカン:「業が深いの。関白(豊臣秀吉)さんよりよっぽど」

Hechikan: You've seen to have accomplished quite a lot. Even more than the Kanpaku (Toyotomi Hideyoshi) himself.
千利休:「左様にございます。さりとて、私の業の働きゆえ、世が侘び色に染まるなら、今生きている者たちが誠の美を見出すなら、争いなど消え失せ、心静かに暮らしを営めましょう」

Sen no Rikyu: Indeed I have. I've been working to spread the philosophy of wabi (sober refinement, beauty in simplicity). In doing that, I hope to help people living now discover true beauty. That discovery will purge this land of conflict, enabling all to live in peace."
ヘチカン:「はあ、二十年の歳月は人を変えるものよのお。おまえさんは天下国家にまで口を出す仁じゃなかった。過ぎたるはなお及ばざるが如し。それはおまえさんにも言えるのと違うのかえ? 己のことは見えがたいものよ」

Hechikan: Humph, 20 years can really change a man. I never thought of you as one to espouse such an ambitious vision for unifying the country under a singular mandate. Too much of a good thing can be bad, you know. But do you really see that? You've lost sight of yourself.
千利休:「・・・・」

Sen no Rikyuu: (Silence)
ヘチカン:「もう生きて会うこともないから言っておくぞ。人の欲の達成には限りがあるのじゃ」

Hechikan: I say this to you because this is probably the last time we'll meet in this life. There is a limit to what a man's ambition can achieve.
千利休:「私では、皆に侘びを伝えられぬと申されますか?」

Sen no Rikyu: Are you saying that it's impossible for me to spread the wabi philosophy?
ヘチカン:「・・・限りを知らねば禍を招きかねん。今の利休居士は、業火にもまれとるよ」

Hechikan: The inability to recognize your limits ultimately courts disaster. Rikyu, there's a goka all around you. I see it.

 

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初めてこのシーンを読んだとき「業火」に織り込められている意味合いを完全に理解していなかったものの、上記で記述した通りその漢字からなんとかその意味を察することが出来ました。そしてこのシーンを読み終えた瞬間に「利休の身は恐ろしい炎に包まれている」という絵が頭の中に浮かび上がりました。その後に手元の国語辞書でこの単語の意味を調べて、それを確認することによってこのシーンが与える衝撃が一層に大きくなりました。

The first time I read this scene I did not fully understand the meaning of the word goka. However, just as I wrote above, I was able to partially infer what it meant from the two kanji that make up the word. At that instant, an image of Rikyu enveloped in flames flashed through my mind. The impact of this scene grew even larger when I later looked up and checked the meaning of this word in the Japanese/Japanese dictionary I had.

 

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さて、このシーンでヘチカンが言う利休の「業」は一体どういう業なのでしょうか?へうげものの概要をまとめるウィキペディアの記事は利休についてこう書かれています:「日本を己の数奇に基づく「わび」の理想国家へと作り変えたいという「業」から秀吉を見込み、信長殺しを持ちかけ暗躍、実行する。豊臣政権の樹立後は筆頭茶頭となり、その天才的な創意を振るうも秀吉との摩擦が多くなる。世に二つの花があっては煩雑であるという信念から帝を毒殺することを秀吉にそそのかすなど、美の理想の追求のためにはどのような行動も厭わない。

一時は己の中で温故知新を果たし穏やかな心を得るが、宗二(利休の弟子)の斬首への憎悪と絶望をきっかけに更なる業に己を染めていく。織部を巻き込まぬため絶縁を申し渡し、自らが作った豊臣政権を滅ぼすため再び暗躍するが、家康に光秀の最期を教えられ、自らの過ちを知って死に臨む。介錯を務めた織部に志を託し切腹した。」

So what exactly are the deeds of Rikyu that Hechikan is referring to in this particular scene?  The Wikipedia overview (in Japanese) of the Hyougemono series contains this passage within its description of Rikyu:

"Rikyu believes that Hideyoshi (Toyotomi) is the man through which he can achieve his vision of transforming Japan into the ideal nation-state he seeks to create; one founded upon his very own wabi-infused vision of refined taste. To achieve this end, he works behind the scenes to set in motion a plot to assasinate Oda Nobunaga (at the hand of Akechi Mitsuhide). Rikyu is named the head tea master after Hideyoshi Toyotomi assumes power, but his creative genius proves to be a regular source of friction between himself and Hideyoshi.  Believing that the world is not large enough for 'two flowers (two objects of beauty)', he tries to convince Hideyoshi to covertly poison and eliminate the Emperor. In short, he is willing to use any means necessary in pursuit of what he believes to be the ideal form of beauty.

Rikyu finds solace for a short time, drawing upon the lessons of the past as he works to break new ground in his pursuit of tea. However, the execution of his student Soji unleashes a well of hate and despair, leading him to further tarnish his soul with evil deeds. He severs his ties with Furuta Oribe, who refuses Rikyu's entreaties to join forces with him, and then works to plot the destruction of the Toyotomi government he created. It is only when Tokugawa Ieyasu tells him the final words of Akechi Mitsuhide that Rikyu realizes the error of his ways as he faces his own execution. He leaves Oribe with his vision for a country rooted in beauty, and accepts decapitation at his hand after committing seppuku."

 

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フォースの暗黒面に潜む危険性についてルークを諭したときヨーダはこう伝えました:「一度闇の道を進み始めたら、闇が一生お前の運命を征服し食い尽くすじゃろう。」漫画へうげもので描かれる利休はヨーダが諭したの如く、一度悪業に手を染めたらその軌道から脱することができなくなりました。自分から見て地上の地獄である日本の乱世を終わらせるために自分が美の理想と見る侘びを礎に新な国の体制を築くために茶の湯を広めようとしました。善意に基づいた志でもあったが、「地獄への道は善意で敷かれている」という諺の如く、その善意を果たすためにどのような行動も厭わず、そのあげく自分のことを見失ってしまい、成し遂げた「業」が生み出した「火」に滅ぼされました。

When Yoda admonishes Luke about the inherent dangers of the Dark Side of the Force, he says "Once you start down the dark path, forever will it dominate your destiny, consume you it will."  This is exactly what we see happen with Rikyu in the manga Hyougemono. Once he taints himself with the stain of evil, he becomes unable to break away from the dark path it sends him down. He viewed the incessant conflict among warlords in Japan as a form of hell on earth, and sought to end it through tea ceremony evangelism in an effort to create a new national order rooted in the wabi he viewed as the ideal form of beauty. Yet, just as the saying "the road to hell is paved with good intentions" goes, his desire to achieve a benevolent end led him to use whatever means necessary to achieve it. In the end, he lost all sight of himself, and became consumed by the fire (火) sparked by his own evil deeds (業). 

 

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この経由で「業火」という単語を知ることになった以降、毎回この単語を見るとまず連想するのは漫画へうげもので描かれる欲望に支配される利休とその欲望が招いた「滅び」の展開です。そして、この連想は「シスの復讐」でアナキンとオビワンの対決の末に溶岩の川の岸で炎に包まれるアナキンのシーンに新な解釈を与えられました。炎に包まれて焼き苦しめていくアナキンの姿を見た瞬間に、頭に浮かんだのはこの「業火」という言葉でした。そのシーンはまさにこの言葉の意味合いを見事に表現していると思います。「業火」でアナキンがジェダイ撲滅に加担したことの罪を始め、そして自分の息子であるルークの慈悲と愛に救われて光に戻るときまでダースベイダーとして積み重ねていく罪をその溶岩の川の岸で焼き苦しい報いとして受けました。では、その悲惨な運命に駆り立てたのは一体何であったでしょう?ただ自分が愛するものを死から救いたかった善意でした。しかし、ヘチカンが利休に言ったように、アナキンの場合は愛が「過ぎたるはなお及ばざるが如し」ものとなり、そして自分を突き動かす愛は力への渇望に生まれ変わって、その結果自分の善意がダースベイダーという地獄への道を敷いてしまいました。

As a result of learning the word goka in this fashion, every time I see this word my mind races to the image of Rikyu driven by ambition, and the ultimate demise to which it led him in the manga Hyougemono. This line of thought added a new interpretation to the final battle between Obi Wan and Anakin in Revenge of Sith, in which Anakin is left consumed by flames on the banks of a lava river. Upon watching the film again and seeing Anakin writhing in pain, enveloped by flames, the word goka flashed through my mind. This scene truly and perfectly conveys the inherent meaning of the word. Surrounded by his own goka on the banks of that lava river, Anakin suffers the pain of all the transgressions he commits as Darth Vader, from his part in the destruction of the Jedi Order until he is finally redeemed by the compassion and love of his son Luke. But what was it that compelled him onward to this tragic fate? His own good intentions, in short the desire to save the ones he loved. Yet, just as Hechikan said to Rikyu, "too much of a good thing can be bad." In Anakin's case, the love that drove him gave way to a lust for power. In the end, his own original good intentions proved to be the cobblestones that paved the way to the hell he came to know as Darth Vader.

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斎藤隆夫粛軍演説 Takao Saitou’s Anti-Militarism Speech

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この演説の存在を知ったのは、ちょうど2年前のことです。

さて、現在の日本に於いて、このような演説を能える政治家がいるのでしょうか?拙僧はそれを訝しむばかりです。

It was two years ago that I first learned of the existence of this speech.

Reading over it, I began thinking as to whether any of the politicians in Japan today would be capable of making such a speech. Needless to say I have my doubts.

 

日中戦争の勃発以降、日本政府は軍事主義一辺倒で疾走したと考えることが多いですが、その流に抗うものもいました。斎藤隆夫はその一人で、政府が売り込むような国策は本当に国民の権益のためになるかという強い疑問を抱えて、1940年(昭和15年)2月2日に帝国議会でその疑問を内閣始め政府にぶつかりました。その演説はいわる「斎藤隆夫粛軍演説」でした。

It is often thought that the Japanese government ran full speed, completely devoted to the precepts of militarism following the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War. However, there were people who stood up and sought to stem the tide. Takao Saitou was one of these individuals. He was gravely concerned about whether the national policy pursued by the government was really in the best interests of the people, and decided to literally confront the Cabinet and the rest of the government with these doubts at a session of the Imperial Diet held on February 2, 1940. The speech he gave came to be known as Takao Saitou’s Anti-Militarism Speech.

 

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斎藤隆夫粛軍演説(最後の一部を抜粋)

Takao Saitou’s Anti-Militarism Speech (Excerpt from the end of the speech)

 

(この国の為政者は)この現実を無視して、ただいたずらに聖戦の美名に隠れて、

They (the leaders of this country) turn a blind eye to reality, merely hiding vainly behind the façade of what they dress up as a holy war.

 

国民的犠牲を閑却し、

They ignore the sacrifices made by the people of this country,

曰く国際正義、曰く道義外交、

曰く共有共栄、曰く世界の平和

claiming that it’s all in the name of global justice or virtuous diplomacy,

insisting upon mutually shared prosperity and world peace.

 

かくのごとき、雲をつかむような文字を並べ立てて、

そうして千載一遇の(戦争を終結する)機会を逸し

They spout off these empty concepts that are as fleeting as the clouds,

and have thrown away a golden opportunity (to bring the conflict to an end).

 

国家百年の大計を誤るようなことがありましたならば

これは現在の政治家は死してもその罪を滅ぼすことはできない

If mistakes have been made to completely unravel the 100 year grand design of the nation, they would be tantamount to grave sins for which not even the deaths of this nation’s leaders could atone.

 

事変以来(事変は日中戦争のこと)、我が国民は実に従順であります

言論の圧迫におうて、国民的意志、国民的感情をも披瀝することができない

The people of this nation have been incredibly obedient since the onset of this so-called incident (the Sino-Japanese War).

They freedom of speech suppressed, they cannot even lay bare their own volition or feelings.

 

政府の統制に服従するの何がためであるか

Then what is it that makes them subservient to this form of governmental control?

政府が適当(適切の意)に事変を解決してくれるであろう、

これを期待しておるがためである

It is because they expect this government to bring the Incident (Sino-Japanese War) to an appropriate close. This is why they obey.

 

しかるに、もし一朝、この期待が裏切らるることがあったならばどうであるか

But what would happen if one day something occurred that betrayed this sense of trust in the government?

 

国民は実に失望のどん底に蹴り落とされるのであります

The people of this nation would be cast down into the depths of utter despair.

 

総理大臣はただ私の質問に答えるばかりでない

The Prime Minister has completely failed to answer the questions I have raised.

 

この機会を通して全国民の理解を求められんことを要求するのである

私の質問は、これをもって終わりと致します

I demand that you take this opportunity to seek the understanding of every single citizen of this country. This hereby concludes my questions regarding the Incident (Sino-Japanese War).

 

演説の時間は1時間30分でした。この演説により、3月7日、斎藤は衆議院議員を除名された。

Saito spoke for nearly an hour and a half. However, his words cost him dearly, and he was forced to step down as a member of the House of Representatives a month later on March 7.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oD1470HX95E

織田信長の陰陽に候: 光秀と秀吉 The Ying and Yang of Oda Nobunaga: Mitsuhide and Hideyoshi

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''They must be destroyed. (Here the kanji 誅 'chuu' implies the idea of exacting punishment from above)''

 

 バガボンドに次によく戻って読み返す漫画は「センゴク」のシリーズである。この漫画の魅力の点を上げようとしますと数えきれないほどもありますが、強いて言えば実際の歴史資料に基づいて人間の性のあるゆる面を描写するリアリズムです。
The manga I probably go back and read the most after Vagabond is the Sengoku series. There are so many great things about this manga, but if I was pressed to say what I like most, I must admit that it is the sense of realism conveyed by a historical-document based narrative which depicts every facet of human nature. 

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シリーズの第三弾となる「センゴク一統期」は豊臣秀吉が信長から引き継いだ天下統一の事業を描きます。この編は本能寺の変の後に繰り広げる織田家の両翼であった明智光秀豊臣秀吉(当時は羽柴秀吉)の間に勃発し、世に言う「山崎の戦」から始まります。

The second installment, "Sengoku Ittouki (Sengoku: The Annals of Unification)", depicts Toyotomi Hideyoshi in his attempt to carry on Oda Nobunaga's quest to unify all of Japan. It begins with the Battle of Yamazaki, which pitted the two wings of the Oda clan, Akechi Mitsuhide and Toyomi Hideyoshi (known as Hashiba Hideyoshi at that time), against each other following the Incident at Honnoji. 

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 「センゴク一統期」の前の編である「センゴク天正記」に戻ってみたいと思います。この編は1574ごろから始まりますが、実際の織田家と同様に光秀と秀吉がその中心人物となります。この二人は対称的に描かれているのは特に印象的です。狡猾かつ策略的で描写される光秀は「陰」を象徴する一方、明るい性格で失敗を挽回し前向きで描写される秀吉は「陽」を表しています。「陰」と「陽」はそれぞれ「夜」と「日」に当たるの如く、この二人の組み合わせで織田家の両翼が成り立っていました。切り離せばその成り立ちが崩れてしまいます。

Here I'd like to go back to the previous installment in this series, "Sengoku Tenshouki (Sengoku: The Tenshou Period Account). It begins around 1574, and just as was the case with the Oda clan in real life, the main characters driving the story are Mitsuhide and Hideyoshi. The symmetry crafted by the contrasting depiction of these characters is profound. The cold and calculating Mitsuhide represents the darkness, while the bright and positive Hideyoshi, who always makes up for his failures, symbolizes the light. Just as darkness and light make up night and day, these two individuals make up the two wings of the Oda clan. Separate the two and everything comes crumbling down.

 

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この写真で写している一コマでは、漫画で描かれる上記の関係を見事に表している発言があります。

The cell pictured in this photo contains a quote that wonderfully shows how the aforementioned relationship between the two is depicted in the manga. Here's the translation.


「明るき光で導く将(秀吉)、合理的な光にて牽引する将(光秀)、
人はそのいずれに従ってゆくことになろう。」

"The leader that stands as the luminous light which leads the way (Hideyoshi), and the leader that stands as the force of logic which drives people forward (Mitsuhide). In the end, people end up following one of the two."

 

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 ''The world will be turned on its head... With the masses ruling those who now rule them.''

宮武外骨:諷刺の世界へようこそ!Miyatake Gaikotsu: Welcome to the world of satire

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宮武外骨(みやたけがいこつ)1867-1955。ジャーナリスト、文化風俗研究家、新聞雑誌研究家。香川県生まれ。明治20年「頓智協会雑誌」を創刊後、「滑稽新聞」「スコブル」など多数の雑誌や奇書を刊行し、反骨と風刺諧謔(かいぎゃく)に富む奇人として知られる。権力揶揄による入獄四回、罰金、発禁などの筆禍は29回に及ぶ。東大に明治新聞雑誌文庫を創設、主任を務める。

出所:「滑稽漫画館」、出版:河出文庫

 Miyatake Gaikotsu, 1867-1955. Journalist, culture and folkways researcher, newspaper and magazine scholar. Born in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan. Published the "Witty Fellowship Magazine" in Meiji 20 (1887), followed by the "Hilarity Times Newspaper", "Tiptop", and a number of magazines and unusual volumes. Known as an eccentric who was fiercely defiant of authority and possessed a great satirical sense of humor. His belittling and ridiculing of figures in government landed him in jail four times. He was also forced to pay numerous fines, and his publications were banned a total of 29 times on account of the nature of the articles they contained. He founded the Meiji Shinbun Zasshi Bunko (Meiji Newspaper and Magazine Resource Center) at Tokyo University and served as its chief supervisor.

Source: Kokkei Mangakan, published by Kawade Bunko.

 

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明治から大正の日本の風刺は今も生き生きしています。ここで宮武外骨の出版雑誌の一つであった「滑稽新聞」からの一部を抜粋して紹介します。この抜粋では宮武が漢字の「意味深い滑稽さ」を取り上げつつ、ある字の組み立てに置いて女性を貶す意味合いが潜められているではないかを読者に問い掛けていると思います。是非、外骨が垣間見させてくれる「当たり前の斬新さ」を楽しんでください。

 The satire from the Meiji and Taisho eras (1868-1926) in Japan still rings through today. Here I have taken an excerpt from one of Miyatake Gaikotsu’s publications, the "Hilarity Times Newspaper". In this excerpt, Miyatake takes a look at the deep yet hilarious aspects of kanji. At the same time, I also feel that he is confronting readers with the fact that the elements of certain kanji seem to implicitly belittle women. I hope you all enjoy the “fresh new take on the ordinary” that Gaikotsu invites us to see.

 

Encyclopedia of Interpretative Kanji Treasures

 

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(1)

(Man) Hey, it looks like you have more than one husband.

(Woman) That’s right. Just between you and mean, I actually have two.

Isn’t that why the character for husband is the combination of person (人) and the number two (二) (人 + 二 = 夫).

 

(2)

(Person 1) A man and woman engaged in an illicit affair have a child out of wedlock. Which one will be most satisfied with the fruit of their shenanigans?

(Person 2) Why the woman of course. When you breakdown the character for "happy" (嬉), it means "woman (女) rejoices (喜)."

 

(3)

(Person 1) When it comes to men and women, who do think is the most lecherous lot?

(Person 2) Definitely the women. Just take a look at the character for "to like" (好き). It’s a combination of the character for "woman" (女) and "child (子)".

(4)

(Person 1) "This (此) string (糸) is neither red nor blue. Exactly what color is it?

(Person 2) That’s what they call "purple" (紫).

 

(Person 1) Say, what’s "that" (其) rock (石) over there?

(Person 2) Don’t pretend like you don’t know. That’s a "go" (碁) stone*.

 

(5)

(Person 1) It seems that the bride-to-be (嫁) is always carted off to her waiting groom (婿方) at night time.

(Person 2) Of course it’s always at night! If they went carting her around in the daytime some envious fool would do something rash to hold up the parade. Take a look at that character for "marriage" (婚). There’s no coincidence that it’s written as "woman" (女) comes at "nightfall" (昏).

 

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(6)

Chicken (酉) + Demon (鬼) = Ugly (醜)

(7)

Woman (女) + Child (子) = Like (好)

 

*Go: A board game which originated in ancient China that is widely played throughout East Asia.

 

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武器で「構成」されている「平和」

The kanji characters for peace (heiwa) made up of weapons.