Ghost of Tsushima に窺える日本方法 Japanese Methodology in Ghost of Tsushima

Ghost of Tsushima" というゲームに一番相応しい言葉は「風光明媚」かも知れない。蒙古の襲来に遭う鎌倉時代を舞台に、その戦乱を極めた時代をこれほど美しく描写されるなんて驚いた。ゲームであり、そしてその上に時代劇のオマージュでもあるこのタイトル、当然ある程度の脚色もある一方、当時へタイムスリップをしたと錯覚するほどあの時代を見事に再現している。
The best word to describe the game Ghost of Tsushima in Japanese is "(風光明媚) fuko-meibi", which evokes the idea of "scenic beauty". I was honestly blown away by how beautifully this game was able to portray such a war-ravaged age, showing us the island of Tsushima as it was attacked by the Mongols in the Kamakura Period. This may be just a game, and on top of that an homage to the Japanese period piece films (jidai-geki). Thus, while certain liberties are taken, it gorgeously recreates the period, making you feel like you've taken a step back in time.

 

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このゲームでは、メインストーリーと傍らに色んな「遊び」めいた要素が織り込まれている。その一つは、まさに風光明媚なところで和歌を詠むこと。選択肢としていくつの句が表示され、その中から自分で選んで詩を詠む。制作は海外のゲーム会社であったから元々は英語となっていたけど、和訳のローカライズが非常に優れて、当時の武士の粗末な和歌らしいものになっている。拙僧がゲームで詠んだ和歌の中で特に気に入っているのは下記の通り。拙僧が「逆翻訳」した詩が元の英語といつか比較してみたいな。
This game has a lot of fun elements on the side that go along with the main story. One of these is composing poems at scenic spots. You are given a choice of lines, and from those you compose your own poems. Since this game was made by an overseas game company, everything was originally in English, but the Japanese localization did a fantastic job, producing quaint if rough edged poems indicative of the samurai of that period. This is one of the poems I made that I especially like. I wonder how my "reverse translation" compares to the original. 

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潤して
(水気を与えて豊かにして)
Water yields richness

 

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惑ひ行きつつ訪へば
(迷ってしまったように探し求めれば)
Seeking it though you feel lost

 

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何を思ふぞ 知るものなし
(どんな心持であるのだろうか 誰にも分らない)
A mood know by none

 

この和歌システムは日本ローカライズ版の特定である。元の英語版を始め、海外版に置いては俳句を詠むことになっている一方、日本語のローカライズ版を担当したソニーインターアクティブのチームが敢えて和歌で行くことにした。そこ決断に至る背景はContinue雑誌の特集で取り上げられた。その取材インタビューの一部を下記の通り抜粋(英訳は筆者のもの也)。
The poem system in the Japanese version is unique in that it uses waka. This was a deliberate choice made by the Japanese localization team at Sony Interactive, who elected to make the system waka-focused instead of going with the haiku-based system featured in the original English and other overseas versions. The special feature the Japanese magazine Continue did on Ghost of Tsushima covers the backdrop to this decision. Here is an excerpt from that interview (translation by author).


Continue(雑誌): そういった和訳といったところで一番注目しているポイントは「和歌」のシステムなんです。風光明媚な場所で、その風景を見て、対象を選んで和歌を詠む。その組み合わせの妙な言葉のチョイスに驚いたのですが、どういった翻訳作業が行われていったのかが気になっています。
Continue (magazine): The thing about the Japanese localization that has everybody talking is the waka system. The poems are composed at scenic spots, with the player picking the verses as they survey the landscape. We were quite surprised by all the subtleties in the words you guys selected for making the poems. How did you go about translating these poems from the original English for the game?

 

石立: 和歌システムを初めて知ったときに驚きましたね。大胆な発想だなと思いました。ただ、短歌や俳句を作るという行為には、遊びの要素も含まれているはずですので、簡易な形でプレイヤーに「作る行為」を体験してもらう遊びというのは、正しいのかもなあとぼんやり思ったことも覚えています。
Ishitate: The waka system caused a few mouths to drop when we first learned about it, too. I thought it was quite an ambitious idea to put into the game. After that initial shock passed, I hazily recall thinking that making it easy for the players to compose the poems was perhaps the right way to go about it, since there is an inherently playful element to writing waka and haiku.

 

Continue:なるほど
Continue: That makes sense.

 

石立: あのシステムが「和歌」になっているのは日本語版だけで、海外版は「Haiku (俳句)」を詠むシステムになっています。海外では和歌の知名度が低すぎるためHaikuにしたのですが、日本語版だけは開発に依頼して和歌にしてもらいました。 
Ishitate: The Japanese version of the game is the only one in which the poems are waka, while all the other overseas versions have the players composing haiku. They went with haiku overseas because not many people outside Japan know about waka. When it came to localizing the game for Japan, we asked the developers to create waka poems.

 

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Continue:海外版と日本版で違っているなはそういった理由があったんですね! Haikuでも言葉はしっかりと韻を踏んでいたりと「わかっている」という楽しさがあります。
Continue: So that’s why the Japanese and overseas versions are different! Haiku also has the fun of that moment when you think “I get it!” after hearing how the words rhyme.

石立: 基本的には、英語版のHaikuを元に、日本語訳をしているのですが、場所ごとに3パターンの3乗になっているというシステムは一目瞭然でしたので、まずは31文字をどうやって3パートに分けるかを考え、あとは、各接続部分の意味をつなげて、どのパターンでもできるだけ意味が通じるようにしました。そのために、全パターンの区切れ位置を同じにするなどの工夫をしています。また、歌を詠んだり句を作ったりするとき、普通は一つの主題だけを扱うと思うので、主題を一つにするため、どのパターンでも可能な限り同じパートに主題が含まれるようにしました。 
Ishitate: The basic approach was making the Japanese based off the original English haiku. However, it was clear that we had to come up with three patterns for the three verses that could be composed at each location, so we set down to thinking about how fit everything into 31 syllables (number of syllables in a Japanese waka poem). Next we came up with the meaning for the different connecting parts, but in a way that no matter which combination you went with the meaning of the poem would make sense. To do that, we had to make the cutoff part of each pattern the same. Another thing we kept in mind is that most poems focus on a central theme, so that’s what we did with the waka. We did our best to make it so that theme was present in each pattern, no matter which pattern you went with.

 

Continue:同じ場所で違うパターンで組み合わせても、しっかりと意味が通じるものになっているので、とてつもない手間がかかっているなと感じていました。なにより、言葉がいまの人たちに身近なものになっているのも素晴らしいです。
Continue: It must have taken quite a lot of effort to make different patterns for each place that still carried clear meaning. It’s impressive how you were able to incorporate vocabulary that seems familiar to those of us in the present day.

 

石立: 史実の鎌倉武士は短歌を詠むことなどできない人が大半ですし、武家が雅な歌を作るのも変なので、あえて素朴さや未熟さを残しています。ただ、俳句と違って短歌では読み手の主体が前面に出てくるので、そこは出すようにしたつもりです。また、開発終盤になって、選択しはプレイヤーが理解できる単語にした方がいいだろうということになり、急遽、一部の選択しをもっと理解しやすい、現代語に近い表現に置き換えました。
Ishitate: In real life, the vast majority of the bushi (samurai) in the Kamakura period couldn’t even write waka. It would have been strange for our samurai hero from this era to write these elegant poems, so that’s why we intentionally made the verses simple and somewhat unrefined. At the same time, though, we made an effort to let the perspective of the character come through, as that’s a key difference between waka and haiku. In waka, the main agent is the writer of the poem. The straight-forward-nature of the words used in the poems was something decided on in the final stages of development, prompting us to work fast to replace some of the expressions at the last minute with vocabulary that was closer to what Japanese speakers use nowadays.

 

こういう武士の素朴な顔の描き方が歴史上に正確に捉えている。戦国時代を取り上げる漫画シリーズである「センゴク」の歴史的な背景を解説する本「ちぇんごく」ではに、シリーズの参考人たる中世日本の歴史研究家である本郷和人はこう書く:
This depiction of the more unrefined face of samurai is historically accurate. Kazuto Hongo, the Medieval Japan historian who serves as the consultant for the manga series "Sengoku" about the Warring States period, writes the following in the series' historical backdrop companion piece "Chengoku":
 
だいたい武士は字を知らない。鎌倉時代初め、筑後守に任じたトップクラスの武士、伊勢国の藤原実重の日記が残っているが、彼はほとんど漢字が書けない。「田」や「大」などがせいぜいで、あとはたどたどしい仮名文字である。そういえば、鎌倉時代の武士の遺言状は、仮名ばかり。時代はとんで室町時代管領(将軍につぐNo. 2)畠山道家も「あいつは漢字を知らないから」と貴族に侮辱されている。
 “Most bushi were illiterate. There was a samurai by the name of Saneshige Fujiwara in Ise No Kuni, who was the lord protector of Chikugo province (present day Fukuoka Prefecture), and he kept a diary. However, he used hardly any kanji (Chinese characters) at all. Much of his entries were written in hiragana (Japanese phonetic characters), with a smattering of simple kanji characters such as 大 (dai, or “big”) and 田 (ta, or “field”). Indeed, the wills left by most Kamakura bushi were written almost exclusively in hiragana. Even in the Muromachi Period (1336-1573),  kanrei (deputy to the shogun) Michi-ie Hatakeyama was ridiculed by the nobility for not knowing how to read and write kanji.”

 

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和歌システムはゲームをより楽しくする要素の一つであり、ゲーム内の世界観をさらに拡充する。ただし、Ghost of Tsushimaにで一番重要な役割を果たしているの「風」である。地図で目的地を設定すると、ボタンを押して風が吹かれ、行く方向を辿ってその行く先へ導かれる。日本文化・歴史とそれらを組み合わせる編集方法を研究する松岡正剛によると、「風」が日本方法において重要な資質である。「にほんとニッポン」の著作で「風」についてこう語る:
The waka system is just one of the elements to help the player better enjoy the game, while also helping to further augment that in-game reality. However, the key element in the game might be the wind. After selecting the destination you want to head to on the map, press a button and the wind begins to blow, showing you the way to go. According to Seigo Matsuoka, a scholar of Japanese culture and history with a focus on the editorial process to weave them together, the wind is an important element with Japanese methodology. He wrote the following about "wind" in his book Nihon to Nippon. 

 

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「風景、風光、風趣、風流、風聞、風来。。。こうした「風の文化」の確立は、まさに物語や絵巻が担ったもう一つの重要な成果であった。(省略)
 風とともに去るような遊芸の民が、かつてカタリの世界を様々な芸におきかえて人々を楽しませたでもあろう。さらにいうならば、「風」こそカタリの隠れた本質を時代を超えて運んでいたともいうべきである。」
"We have a number of words in Japanese that incorporate the character for “wind (風)”: 風景 (fuukei; “view”), 風光 (fuukou; “landscape”), 風趣 (fuushu; “elegance”), 風聞 (fuubun; “rumor”),and 風来 (fuurai; unpredictability)... In the past there were also travelling artists that seemingly left like the wind. They were the story tellers, and would refashion those tales through different modes of performance art to entertain people. Indeed, this idea of “wind” is the hidden essence of these artists’ storytelling that has transcended time."
 
「風」に導かれGhost of Tshushimaの世界を巡りながら、この松岡先生の言葉が何回も思い浮かんだ。Sucker Punchが松岡先生が唱える「風」の重要さを意識していなかったと思う一方、ゲームに置いてその「風」の用い方が見事にその持論と重なり合うと言ってもいいだろう。要するに、「風」を使いこなすことがGhost of Tsushimaの醍醐味を存分に堪能への鍵である。「風」を辿りながら敵を見つけ出したり、対馬を探検したり、風光明媚の「風景」を眺めたり、冥人の「風聞」を広めたり、琵琶を弾く遊芸の民から対馬の伝説を教えてもらったりする。ゲームのほとんどはあるゆる「風」の形を通して体験するように作られている。その意味で、Ghost of Tsushimaにおいて日本方法が濃く織り込まれていると拙僧が思う。日本語のローカライズ版をプレーした結果、その印象を受けた。
These quotes from Matsuoka came to mind more than a few times as made my way through the world of Ghost of Tsushima, guided by the gusts of wind. While I doubt that the team at Sucker Punch were keyed into the importance that Matsuoka places on the wind in Japanese methodology, but the manner in which it is employed in the game seems to sync up perfectly with that concept. In short, the key to truly enjoying the essence of Ghost of Tsushima is harnessing this wind. Finding your foe. Exploring the island of Tsushima. Taking in the scenic beauty of its vistas. Building up the rumors of the Ghost. Learning the legends of Tsushima from a traveling minstrel playing a biwa (Asian lute). Nearly every facet of the Ghost of Tsushima is experienced through the different forms of the wind. In that sense, this aspect of the Japanese methodology Matsuoka describes is vividly reflected in the game. That's the impression I came away with playing the localized Japanese version of the game. 

 

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しづかなり
(静寂と平穏に満ちている)
Shizuka nari
(All is calm and quiet)

 

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往く流れさへ、おぼめきて
(水の流れさえ どうすべきか迷っているようで)
Yuku nagare sae, obomekite
(Even the current seems uncertain what to do)

 

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ただ末までも、寄せんとぞする
(水流も私も、なんとか終わりまで辿り着こうとしている)
Tada sue made mo, yosen to zosuru
(Trying to make it to this journey's end, both the stream and I)

 

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エヴァンゲリオンと鬼滅の刃:時代に選ばれた作品 Evangelion and Demon Slayer: Two Works Selected by Their Eras

非常に興味深い記事であったため、一部を抜粋して(英訳は拙僧のものであり)紹介したいと思う。拙僧が初めてハマったアニメシリーズはカウボーイビバップであったけど、次に見たシリーズは確かにエヴァンゲリオンであった。そこで描かれたテーマは非常に衝撃的であって、媒体としてアニメの可能性が無限に近いであることを教えてくれた。そして、早送りしてエヴァンゲリオンの公開から25年後たる2020年には、日本全土と同様にうちの子供も「鬼滅の刃」というアニメにハマった。この記事で取材を受けた社会学者で東京都立大教授の宮台真司さんによると、この二作のアニメシリーズは「時代に選ばれた作品」である。
This is a fascinating article, so I've decided to translate a few excerpts from it to provide the English speaking audience with some of the insights it provides. The first anime series that I really got into was "Cowboy Bebop", but the one I watched after that was "Evangelion". I remember being blown away by the themes that it addressed. Indeed, it was the series that clearly demonstrated to me the nearly infinite potential anime possesses as a medium. Fast forward to 2020, 25 years after Evangelion's release, and our kids got caught up in the anime "Kimetsu no Yaiba: Demon Slayer" just like everyone else in Japan. According to Shinji Miyadai, sociologist and professor at Tokyo Metropolitan University, both of these series have proven to be "works selected by their eras."

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Source: ITmedia, kimetsu.com

 

"宮台さんによると、95年は「社会の共通前提が破壊された年」だった。1月、阪神大震災が発生。3月、オウム真理教による地下鉄サリン事件。小遣いほしさの「援助交際」、強盗行為の「おやじ狩り」が社会問題化しはじめたのもこの頃だった。そんな時代を枕にして、秋の夕刻にエヴァのテレビシリーズが始まった。主人公の自意識を巡る悩み、極めて狭い人間関係の中でのやりとりに、世界の命運というダイナミックなスケールの「仕掛け」が組み合わされた斬新なストーリーに「10~40代の幅広い年齢層の視聴者がはまりました」と宮台さんは言う。「共通前提が空洞化すると、不幸も幸福も自意識の問題だと感じられはじめます。エヴァはそこにシンクロしました」 "
"Miyadai claims that 1995 was the year in which the universal preconceptions held by Japanese society were shattered. January saw the massive Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. Two months later in March was the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo Metro subway committed by members of the Aum Shinrikyo cult movement. Other new social issues also began to emerge around this time, such as "enjo kosai (young women receiving money/gifts from older men in return for sexual favors)" and "oyaji kari (hunting down and beating middle age/elderly men and taking their money)." It was against this backdrop that Evangelion hit the evening slots of Japanese TV that autumn. The story put forward by the series was really original, centering on a young protagonist struggling with his own idea of consciousness while confined within very narrow social relationships, thrust into a chain of dynamic events that will determine the fate of the world. It appealed to a wide audience, from teenagers to those in their 40s. 'When universal preconceptions start to ring hollow, people begin to perceive the notions of happiness and unhappiness as issues involving their own consciousness,' Miyadai says. 'Evangelion resonated because it fell in sync with that atmosphere.' "

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Source: evangelion.com

 

"「『鬼滅の刃』で描かれる鬼は、強ければ昇格でき、弱ければゴミ扱いされるルール下で生きています。これは今の社会と一緒。倫理よりも損得勘定に駆られて上を目指さざるを得ない昨今の人間たちの隠喩です」。さらに宮台さんが続ける。「鬼もそれぞれ人から鬼になる過程で悲劇を抱えますが、鬼同士はその悲劇を共有しません。そんな孤独な鬼たちが、悲劇を共有して正しい人間のあり方を示せる主人公ら『鬼殺隊』に退治されていくのです」"
"In 'Kimetsu no Yaiba: Demon Slayer", demons are pitted against each other in a hierarchical battle. The cunning climb up that ladder, the weak are treated as expendables. This mirrors contemporary society. It is essentially a metaphor for human beings driven to vie for the top, discarding ethics in favor of self-interest as the calculus for their actions. There is a tragic story behind how each fell from human grace and became a demon, but these demons do not bond together over this shared sense of tragedy. Each of them is on their own. They in turn are vanquished by the Demon Slayers, a group that share in each other's own sad tales and come together to provide a model of how human beings should be."

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Source: Fuji TV

 

"エヴァが、社会で孤立し、自意識の世界にとらわれた個々の若者たちへの応援歌だったとすれば、コロナ禍の時代に老若男女が涙した「鬼滅の刃」は、自意識に閉ざされることを否定するという点で、その対極にある作品だと宮台さんは言う。"
" 'Evangelion' is a chant to cheer on young people who feel isolated from society and lost in their own stream of consciousness. On the other hand, 'Kimetsu no Yaiba: Demon Slayer', which has stirred the emotions of young and old amid this pandemic, is a rejection of this self-imposed isolation within one's consciousness."

 

https://mainichi.jp/articles/20210106/dde/012/040/019000c?fbclid=IwAR0hvw9oZTkiHOn0IazRHoDE1mM5j5HCxhnrvjky_NMTrPZhKj4Ca3onXFY

縁の意義を見失ったジェダイ騎士団The Jedi: An Order that Fell Out of Touch

晩期の旧共和国でのジェダイ騎士団はフォースに対してかなり独断的な解釈を取り、そのあげくフォースの全体を見えなくなってしまったと言っても過言ではない。そして、その独断的な解釈が足枷になり、フォースの流れを自由かつ柔軟に対応できなくなってしまうことになった。敢えていうなら、この独断的な解釈に対する「確信」がいつの間にか「執着」へと変異し、ジェダイ騎士団の礎に大きな亀裂を拓いてしまった。
The Jedi Order in the waning days of the Old Republic held a very dogmatic view of the Force. Indeed, it would be no exaggeration to say that this dogma prevented them from fully seeing the Force, acting as a sort of shackles that denied them the ability to freely and flexibly respond to the flow of the Force. In the end, the case can be made that this sense of conviction placed in their own dogmatic interpretation transformed into a sense of attachment that cracked the foundations of the Jedi Order.
 
「執着」という単語はスターウォーズファンの耳に馴染みのある単語であろう。「執着=暗黒面の道」というイメージを植え付けさせたのはエピソード3「シスの復讐」にアナキンへの諭しとしてマスターヨーダが言った言葉。「執着は嫉妬を生む。それは貪欲の影じゃ。」「執着」は「執」と「着」で構成されている二字熟語であり、どちらも意味深い字でもあるが、ここで検証してみたいのは「執」の字である。「スターウォーズ:漢字の奥義」はこう解説する:「執」の「幸」は「手かせ」のこと。手かせをはめられ、ひきまずいている人のさまをかたどっている。つまり、「とらえる」の意。そこから「じっと保持する」という意味が生まれた。執着、執心などの熟語はいずれも、何かにしつこくこだわることを意味する。」
The word “attachment” is likely a familiar one to many a Star Wars fan. It is often considered to be synonymous with the road to the Dark Side, an image that was firmly planted by the admonishment that Master Yoda gave to Anakin in Episode 3: Revenge of the Sith: “Attachment leads to jealousy, the shadow of greed, that is.” The Japanese word used to convey the meaning of “attachment” in this context is shuuchaku (執着). The two kanji characters that make up this word hold deep meaning in their own right, but here I would like to focus specifically on the first one, 執 (shuu). The book Mastering Kanji through Star Wars provides this insight into the character: “The 幸 part of the character 執 implies “shackles.” The shape of the character is meant to evoke the image of a person on their knees with their hands bound; in essence someone who has been captured. This gave rise to the meaning of “fiercely preserve/hold on to”. The Japanese words shuuchaku (執着) and shuushin (執心) both carry the meaning of holding on to something (idea, belief) possessively and steadfastly.  f:id:akiruno_life:20201206225146j:image

Source: Disney/Lucasfilm

 

本書はその後にこう付き加える:「何かをしっかりと守り続けることは、必ずしも悪いことばかりとはいえない。だが、ひとつのものに執着し、こだわり続ければ、自分をそこに縛り付けることになってしまう。逆に自分が縛られて、自由を失うことになりかねないだろう。ジェダイの師達が執着を禁じたのは、そのせいに違いない。」しかし、皮肉にもその執着に対する独断的な解釈がジェダイ騎士団を縛りつけることになり、フォースを読み取る自由を失わせることに繋がった。その結果、本来守るべきものを守れなくなってしまった。それは「銀河の平和」、そしてその平和の中に暮らしたい希望を持つのは「民」である。ジェダイ騎士団が民へ目を配れなくなったのはフォースに対するその独断的な解釈を守ることにあまりにも必死であったため、気付かないうちに銀河社会を疎んじることになってしまったからだ。
The book follows up the explanation of the character 執with this passage: “The desire to steadfastly protect something is not necessarily bad in of itself. However, if you remain overly fixated on that one thing, you eventually become attached to it. In a different light, you become bound by that attachment, which can eventually deprive you of your own liberty to act. This is clearly the motivation behind the Jedi masters decision to prohibit attachments.” Ironically, however, this dogmatic interpretation of “attachment” ended up shackling the Jedi Order itself, depriving it of the liberty to read the Force. As a result, they ultimately became unable to protect the very thing they were supposed to protect: peace in the galaxy, and the citizens who desired to live their lives in peace. The Jedi lost sight of these citizens because they had failed to realize they had grown indifferent to the galactic society at large, the consequence of their fervent commitment to upholding their dogmatic views of the Force.
 
本来の意義を見失ったジェダイの在り様を如実に物語るシーンはクローン・ウォーズの最後のシーズンの第七話にある。ジェダイ―騎士団を去ったアナキン・スカイウォーカーの元パダワンであったアソーカ・タノコルサントアンダーワールドにマルテス姉妹と出会い、その二人と組んで手を貸すことになる。ある仕事のために惑星ケッセルに行った三人だが、パイクの犯罪組織に捕まれてしまう。牢の中に計画がしくじった理由をもめる中、ジェダイめいた発言をしたアソカ(実は元ジェダイだが)に対して姉のラファが怒り出して、姉妹が何故ジェダイを気に食わない理由を明かす。アソーカと出会うの数年前にマルテス家族がズィロー・ザ・ハットの脱獄事件に巻き込まれ、両親がその事件の犠牲者にもなってしまった。両親と住居が失われてしまった二人の姉妹を訪れたジェダイ―が手助けすることもなく、「フォースが共にあります」だけと言い、その場を去った。
Episode seven in the final series of The Clone Wars provides a lucid example of how the Jedi had lost sight of their purpose. Ahsoka Tano, former Padawan of Anakin Skywalker, has made her way to the underworld of Coruscant after leaving the Jedi Order. There she meets the Martez sisters, and ends up helping them with some jobs. One of these jobs takes them to Kessel, but the three of them end up getting captured by the Pike criminal organization. In the prison cell, an argument ensues over why their plan went awry, with the older sister Rafa angered by the Jedi-like comment that Ahsoka makes, prompting her to reveal why the two sisters do not like the Jedi. She then proceeds to describe how a few years back her parents got caught up in the escape of gangster Jiro the Hutt, with both of them losing their lives as a result. After losing their parents and home, Rafa describes how they were visited by a Jedi. However, rather than offering a helping hand, the Jedi merely says “May the Force be with you” and then goes on her way.
 f:id:akiruno_life:20201206225407j:image

Source: Disney/Lucasfilm

 

二人の人生を悲劇にしてしまった事件にジェダイが絡んだことを知ったアソーカがかなりショックを受けた。そして、多くの銀河系の民の目にジェダイはどのように映っているのかを遂に悟った。フォースに対する独断的な解釈に執着してしまったジェダイが、その同じフォースを通して人々と縁で結ばれていること、そしてその縁が正しく機能するため何よりも必要なのは思いやりであることを忘れてしまった。それなのに、戦争と政治のことばかりを優先した結果、コルサントアンダーワールドを始め銀河系の数多くの惑星の民の日常に目を配る余裕が失われてしまった。そこでジェダイに見捨てられてしまったとの思いが民の中に芽生えてしまうのは当然のことであったろう。
The revelation that the Jedi were involved in the incident which brought tragedy into their two lives was a shock to Ahsoka. It was then that she came to realize how the Jedi were perceived by many of the people in the galaxy. The Jedi’s fixation on their dogmatic view of the Force made them forget that they were connected to all those people through that same Force. They had also forgotten that the most important thing to make those connections work was empathy. Instead, the Jedi had come to give priority to war and politics, leaving them with little room to take stock of the daily lives of the Coruscant’s underworld inhabitants and other peoples across the galaxy. It is only natural that the belief that the Jedi had abandoned them would take root among them.
 
このマルテス姉妹の過去の話を聞いたとき思い浮かんだのは「センゴク」という歴史漫画シリーズからあるシーンであった。このブログで何回も取り上げたこの歴史漫画だが、その醍醐味は一次資料に基づいた歴史の研究が辿り着いた新説を付け加えたストーリーだけではなく、人間の性に満ちた物語の展開だ。そのシーンは「センゴク権兵衛」の第12巻からである。四国入りの戦いで大敗を喫してしまった仙石権兵衛は主君である豊臣秀吉に改易を命じられ、大名の座から降ろされた。その後、己が如何に進むべきかを知るために、日本の真言宗の聖地である高野山でしばらく居候することにした。歩むべき道を模索しながら古渓(こけい)という高僧と出会うことになる。ある日、古渓が住職を務める大徳寺で和尚と拝謁することになった権兵衛が、元主君である豊臣秀吉が暴君に変わりつつであるとの懸念を打ち明かす。二人の会話の一部を下記の通り抜粋する:
The story of the Martez sisters’ past brought to mind a scene from Sengoku, a series of historical manga set in the Warring States Period that I’ve referenced numerous times on this blog. The manga crafts a tale that interweaves new historical research based on primary source documents. On top of that, the narrative is steeped in human drama. The scene that came to mind is from Volume 12 of Sengoku Gonbei. Protagonist Gonbei has been stripped of his standing as a daimyo (warlord) by his master Toyotomi Hideyoshi for the crushing defeat he suffered during the invasion of the island of Shikoku. He sets out for Koyasan, home to the Shingon (True Word) sect of Japanese Buddhism, in a quest to figure out how to move forward. In his search for his calling, he meets an esteemed Zen priest by the name of Kokei. One day Gonbei has the privilege of visiting with Kokei at Daitokuji, the temple over which he presides, and it is there that he reveals his concern that his former master is on his way to becoming a tyrant. Here is an excerpt from their conversation.
 
古渓:世の万物は縁によって繋がっておるもの。
Kokei: All things in creation are interlinked through “en”.
 
権兵衛:ああ、高野山で教わりました。
Gonbei: Ah yes, that is something I learned at Koyasan.
 
古渓:いかにも。世間は殿下(豊臣秀吉)に支配され、殿下は世間にせっつかれる。そういう繋がりに。
Kokei: But of course. Our society, the world as we know it, is governed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Society in turn is a force acting on him, and in a way pressing him to take action.
 
古渓:然らばもし、世間が天下人を疎んじ、天下人が世間を疎んずれば、天下は悪しき縁の流れに向かっていきましょう。
Kokei: Herein lies the conundrum. If society begins to look coldly on the ruler, and if he begins to neglect society, then the “en” binding all things will sour and head in the wrong direction.
 f:id:akiruno_life:20201206225514j:image

Source: Kodansha


ここでもう一度「執着」という言葉に戻りたい。スターウォーズに置いてこのコンセプトを元の英語で「attachment」で表現している。しかし、「attachment」には「執着」以外の意味がその英語の語彙にある。「attachment」の類義語の一つは「connection」であり、これをまた日本語にすると「結び」や「絆」や先ほど紹介した古渓と権兵衛の話に出てきた「縁」という意味合いが訳出される。「結」と「絆」と「縁」との三文字の共通点は「糸」の部首で、これが「繋がっている」、つまり「connected」の意味合いを強調している。そして、「縁」には英語の「connection」より深い意味合いがあり、敢えて言うなら「フォースを通して繋がっている」と読み取れるではないかと拙僧が思う。
Here I’d like to take a step back and look at the word “shuuchaku (執着)” again. The original English word for this concept in Star Wars is “attachment.” However, the meaning of this word is more than just what the Japanese word “shuuchaku (執着)” implies. One synonym of the word “attachment” is “connection”, and taking this word and translating it back into Japanese leads us to words such as “musubi (結び; “ties”)”, “kizuna (絆; “bond”)”, and “en (縁; “connection”)”, the latter of which we just saw in the conversation between Kokei and Gonbei. The kanji characters in all three of these Japanese words share 糸(ito), which on its own means “thread”, and here it reinforces the idea of “connected.” The word “en (縁)” conveys a deeper sense of connection than the English equivalent, and I feel it carries a similar connation to being connected through the Force.
 
さて、この日英の言語の意味合いの検証を通してある結論に辿り着く。ジェダイが「執着」をあまりにも必死で否定しようとした結果、縁を持つことも拒否することになってしまった。縁を通して人と親しくなって絆を築いていくこともある。でも、ヨーダがアナキンに話した執着の定義によると、絆は執着の一つであり、その絆を失う恐れが暗黒面への糸口にもなり得る。だからこそ、暗黒面への糸口を最小限にするためにジェダイ騎士団は外の世間と積極的に結びを築こうしなかったし、フォース使いの子供を早い段階で見つけ出し家族から切り離してジェダイ寺院に連れて行った。換言すれば、それが「縁」を切る方針に等しいでもあった。だからジェダイが世間を疎んじるようになったという思いが銀河系の民の多くに芽生えたではないかと拙僧が思う。
This study of the nuances in these Japanese and English words leads to this conclusion: the Jedi’s fervent drive to reject attachments led them to reject connections. The connections people form with others can lead to deeper bonds (the aforementioned “kizuna (絆)”, but according to the definition of “attachment” that Yoda gave to Anakin, these bonds are a form of attachment, and the fear of their loss could potentially open the path towards the Dark Side. As such, the Jedi made it a point not to actively build deeper ties with the world outside the Order, and to identify children capable of using the Force early on, take them away from their families, and bring them to the Jedi Temple. Put differently, this amounted to a policy of severing ties with the larger world. That is why I feel the idea that the Jedi had grown indifferent to society at large took root among many in the galaxy.
 
では、ジェダイはこの独断的な解釈から解放され縁を正しくとらえるために何をすれば良かったのだろうか?そのヒントは古渓と権兵衛の話の続きにある。牧伯(ぼくはく:大名諸侯のこと)へどうやって戻ればいいかを知りたい権兵衛に古渓がこう答えた:
The question then is what should the Jedi have done to free themselves of their dogma and adopt the correct view of what it means to be connected (i.e., have attachments)? The next part of the conversation between Kokei and Gonbei provides us with some hints. Gonbei seeks to know how he can return to the ranks of daimyo. This is the answer that Kokei gives him:
 
“然らば、どうやって戻るか?自我や煩悩に誘引されぬ事。己が必ず正しいと思わぬ事。己が必ず間違いと思わぬ事。「己」も所詮は「縁」の狭間にあるように見える存在。つまり、「無」。是を知らば、自ずと良縁は見つかる。縁に導かれるがまま、貴殿はいずれ牧伯たらん事疑いなし。”
“If returning to the ranks of daimyo is what you seek, the question then is how you go about doing that. Do not succumb to your ego or passions. Do not believe you are completely in the right, but do not believe that you are completely in the wrong. Remember that you are the visage of a presence within this web of “en (縁; connections)”, one without form. If you recognize these truths, good “en” will come your way. If you let “en” be your guide, you will find your way back to the daimyo ranks. Of that I am certain.”

f:id:akiruno_life:20201206225631j:image

Source: Kodansha
 
この言葉を初めて目に通したとき、真っ先に思い浮かんだのは「最後のジェダイ」で描写されるルークであった。ルークスカイワーカという伝説により生み出された自我に誘引され、自分が新なジェダイ騎士団を自ら築けると思っていた。そして、その自分のやり方とヨーダやオビ・ワンから受け継いだジェダイの教えが正しいと思い込んでいた。でも、甥のベン・ソロに宿る闇を見ていくうちに、自分の父親であったアナキン・スカイワーカと同じ道を歩むことになるとの恐れに屈して、その闇を消すため一瞬で自分の甥を殺そうと思った。それはまさに自我と煩悩に誘引された結果。
The first time I read these words, my mind went to the way in which Luke is portrayed in The Last Jedi. We see how Luke had succumbed to the ego born of the legend of “Luke Skywalker”, convinced that he could build a new Jedi Order. This Luke believed that his approach and the teachings bequeathed to him by Yoda and Obi Wan were in the right. However, when he saw the darkness growing within his own nephew Ben Solo, he became afraid that he would venture down the same path that his father Anakin Skywalker walked down. Luke let this fear overwhelm him, and for a fleeting second entertain the thought of killing his own nephew in a bid to expunge the darkness.

f:id:akiruno_life:20201206225712p:image

Source: Disney/Lucasfilm
 
あのことをやろうとした自分に失望にしたルークがフォースを始めすべての縁を切って、惑星アクトに引き篭もることにした。でも、レイとの出会いのお蔭で新な「縁」が形成され、そしてその縁が仲間とフォースとの絆を思い出させた。「己」も所詮は「縁=フォース」の狭間にあるように見える存在であり、フォースを通して「無」となり得ることを改めて思い知る。この「無」を英語にすると「nothing」と訳出されることが多いだけど、仏教においてこの「無」は「無限」に近い意味合いもある。レイが作った良縁に導かれたルークは、フォースを通してかつて自分が持った絆と再び結んで、自分を無にして新ら希望を銀河系に与えた。良縁のお蔭で、ジェダイの歩むべき道を遂に見つけた。そして、それが銀河系にとって良き縁の流れを作り出した。
Disappointed with himself for what he attempted to do, Luke cut himself off from the Force and all the connections (attachments) he had and shut himself away on Ahch-to. However, his encounter with Rey gave rise to a new “en (connection)”, causing him to remember the ties with his friends and bond he had with the Force. He rediscovered that he was no more than a visage of a presence in this web of “en”, which in this case was the Force, and through that he could transcend form. In Japanese, the word that Kokei used to describe this idea of transcendence to Gonbei was “mu (無)”. This word is often translated to “nothing” in English, but in a Buddhist context it has a meaning more along the lines of “infinite potential (due to lack of form)”. Guided by the good connection formed by Rey, Luke reached out through the Force to rekindle the bonds he once held, and deliver a new hope to the galaxy through his own transcendence. He discovered the path Jedi are supposed to take, and it started with getting back in touch. In the end, this pushed the “en” in the galaxy in the right direction.

f:id:akiruno_life:20201206225828j:image

Source: Disney/Lucasfilm

「風立ちぬ」戦争と日本人 The Wind Rises: The Japanese War Experience (Part 2)

宮崎駿半藤一利の座談会 (2013年08月)からの抜粋
Excerpts from Dialogue between Hayao Miyazaki and Kazutoshi Hando (August 2013):
 

f:id:akiruno_life:20200823221712j:image
Source: Studio Ghibli
 
日本は国家戦略で追いつけなかった
Japan could never catch up
 
半藤一利零戦にしても、あとの戦艦大和にしても、その技術、完成度は、当時、世界最高のものだったと思いますが、それを生かす、もっと大きな技術体系、産業体制、さらに言えば国家戦略で追いつけなかったんですね。
Kazutoshi Hando: The Mitsubishi Zero Fighter and the grand battleship Yamato were two of the greatest pieces of military engineering of their time, both in terms of technical expertise and level of perfection. That said, Japan failed to develop a national strategy, underpinned by the necessary technological and industrial infrastructure, to take full advantage of these weapons.   

 

f:id:akiruno_life:20200823221631j:image
Source: Nikkei Shimbun
 
私は堀越さんにはお会いしたことはないですが、映画で堀越さんの親友として登場する一式陸攻[H1] の設計者、本庄季郎さんにお会いしました。とても明るい穏やかな紳士で、学校の先生のような雰囲気の方でした。それに対して、堀越さんには、どこかに世界を驚かせてやろうという山っ気が感じられます。
I never had the pleasure of meeting Horikoshi, but I did have the opportunity to meet his good friend Kiro Honjo, the engineer behind the Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber who is also portrayed in the film. He had the air of a school teacher about him, a gentlemen with a bright yet calm disposition. Horikoshi seems to have been a bit more daring, as if he was looking to do something that would take the world by surprise.
 
宮崎駿:堀越は戦闘機、本庄は攻撃機を設計していますが、二人の作った飛行機は対照的なんですね。本庄さんのデザインは直線と円で構成されていて、実に合理的かつ大量生産に向いている。一方、零戦はあまりにも精微で作りにくいんです。
Hayao Miyazaki: Horikoshi designed a fighter plane while Honjo was the mastermind behind a bomber. The planes they crafted stood in stark contrast to each other, even when considering they were fundamentally different types of aircraft. Honjo created a plane well suited for mass production, with a design blending straight lines and rounded features. Meanwhile, the Zero was much more detailed in its design, making it difficult to manufacture.

 

f:id:akiruno_life:20200823221559j:image
Source: Hasegawa Model
 
半藤:その結果、零戦は四年間で一万機しか作れませんでした。一方、アメリカはグランマンF6Fだけで二年間で一万二千機以上作っている。もちろん国力自体に大きな差があったのですが、「兵器ではなく工芸品」とまで評されるほど、零戦の製造は手間がかかったといいます。
Hando: That’s why Japan only made 10,000 Zero Fighters over a four-year period. Meanwhile, the US cranked out some 12,000 Grumman F6F Hellcats in a two-year span. Granted, there was the major gap in the manufacturing capabilities of the two countries. Even so, much of this owes to the fact that the Zero simply took a long time to make, to the point that some joked it was more of a work of art than a weapon of war.
 
宮崎:むしろ、よくこんな作りにくい飛行機を一万機も作ったと言いたくなりますね。実は、今回、零戦を描くのが嫌で嫌で仕方なかったんです。物凄く難しい上に、ちょっと形が崩れるとすぐに「違う!」とわかってしまう。胴体の放物線一つをとっても、途中で微妙に変化が付いていて…..。誰もやってくれないから、結局、自分で描きましたが、試写で観ても我ながら下手だなあ、と嫌になりました。
Miyazaki: Saying all that, I think it’s quite impressive that Japan was able to roll out 10,000 of these difficult-to-make Zero Fighters. I know I dreaded lifting up my pencils and trying to draw the Zero. It’s not that it’s merely tough to depict, but when you fudge it up just a bit, you instantly know you got it completely wrong. Then you have the parabola-like features of the main body, characterized by the subtle changes they make along the way. I ended up doing all this work myself, as no one was going to do it for me, but I got upset when I watched the movie at the premiere, frustrated with the poor job that I did.
 
半藤:いや、零戦が登場する場面はたいへんな見ものですよ。
Hando: Don’t be so hard on yourself. The scenes with the Zero Fighter are some of the best in the movie.
 
私も零戦では痛い目に遭ったことがあります。実を言うと、私は軍艦は大好きなのですが、飛行機はあまり詳しくないんです。ところが、文藝春愁でお前、戦争物は得意だろうと「日本航空戦記」という雑誌を作らされた。乱暴な会社なんです(笑)。そこで、真珠湾上空に零戦が飛んでいるイラストを表紙にしたところ、航空マニアから抗議殺到。「この零戦零戦でも五二型で、真珠湾には行っていない」と。事実、そうなんですが、ちょっと絵を見ただけわかるもんなんですね。今日はその雑誌をお待ちしたのですが(手渡す)。
I actually received a lot of flak about the Zero Fight one time. My passion was more for battleships and naval craft, so I didn’t know all that much about airplanes. Back when I was working at Bungei Shunshu, I was put in charge of doing this special feature on the Japanese Air Force in WW2. My superiors thought I’d be up to the task because I liked military history. That publication really knows how to work its staff hard (laughs). Anyway, we used this illustration of a Zero Fighter over Pearl Harbor for the cover, and oh man, did we get a flood of complaints came from all these airplane aficionados, who told me that I had gotten it completely wrong. While there were Zero Fighters at Pearl Harbor, they were not the 52-type that we had depicted in the cover illustration. Well, they were right, but I always wondered if that was something you could pick up from a mere illustration. I actually brought issue with me today (hands it over to Miyazaki).

 

f:id:akiruno_life:20200823221446j:image
Source: Hasegawa Model
 
宮崎:あ、これは違いますね。五二型でもないです。
Miyazaki: Yep, that’s definitely not a 52-type Zero Fighter.
 
半藤:なんと、それは新事実です(笑)。
Hando: Wow, you learn something new every day (laughs).
 
宮崎:五二型は、戦後三菱が復元したものが遊就館にありますね。この前、所沢にアメリカ人の持っている零戦が展示されていて、コックピットに乗せてあげるから見に来ないかと誘われたのですが、断りました。戦利品ですからね。インディアンがトマホークを集めた展示会に行くと思いますか?それに僕は博物館など展示されている飛行機は好きじゃないんです。何か魂が抜かれたように感じる。
Miyazaki: There’s a 52-type that Mitsubishi restored after the war that is now on display at the Yushukan (Military Museum at Yasukuni Shrine). A while back there was Zero Fighter owned by an American collector on display in Tokorozawa (city in Saitama, just to the north of Tokyo), and the people in charge of that exhibit gave me a call and said they’d let me climb into the cockpit if I wanted. However, I declined the invite. I mean, we’re talking about the spoils of war here. Do you think a Native American would want to go check out a collection of tomahawks amassed by a white guy? The Zero Fighters on display in museums also don’t sit right with me. They feel devoid of any soul.
 
半藤:零戦はある意味、悲劇の名機ですね。太平洋戦争の後半は、熟練したパイロットがいなくなったこともあり、すっかり時代遅れの戦闘機となって、しまいには特攻兵器。ボロボロの戦いを強いられました。
Hando: The Zero Fighter is a tragic masterpiece in its own right. The latter half of the Pacific War saw Japan facing a dearth of experienced pilots, effectively muting the advantages of the aircraft and rendering it a relic of the past. In the end, it was literally run into the ground as it was relegated to running suicide attacks.
 
宮崎:本当は、零戦の次にジェット機を作っていなければならなかったんです。堀越は、零戦に小手先の改造を重ねるのではなく、機体そのものを変更すべきだと何度も何度も上層部に言っていますが、受け入れられなかった。
Miyazaki: The Japanese Air Force should have been looking to make a jet aircraft to replace the Zero. That’s what Horikoshi repeatedly stressed to his superiors, telling them that they needed to develop a jet fighter instead of making tweaks to the Zero. But they never listened to him.
 
半藤:結局、”持たざる国” 日本にそれだけの国力も先見性もなかったんですね。映画の中で、零戦を牛車で運ぶ場面がありましたね。名古屋の工場から各務原の飛行場まで丸一日かかったというなは有名なエピソードですが、トラックの輸送も、そのための舗装道路も、最後まで実現できなかった。非常に象徴的なシーンです。
Hando: Utlimately, Japan is a “have-not” nation, and in the war it lacked the national strength and foresight to make up for this. There was a scene in the film in which you show the Zero Fighter being drawn by an ox cart. It’s well-known that at the time it took roughly a day to transport the fighters from the factory in Nagoya to the airfield at Kakamigahara. They were never able to pave the road between the two and make it possible to actually move those fighters by truck. That scene really hits hard.

 

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Source: Studio Ghibli
 
宮崎:でも、堀越さんは著書で、牛車で運ぶのも、当時の道路事情から考えると合理性があった、と書いていますね。それほどたくさん製造していないから、ゆっくり運んでも良いのだと弁護している。きっと牛が好きだったのでしょう(笑)。
Miyazaki: Yeah, but when you look at what Horikoshi wrote, it made more sense to haul the fighters by ox cart given the state of the roads back then. At the same time, there were not that many Zero Fighters made, so he said it was best to take it slow when moving the planes to the air field. I’m sure he had a soft spot for cows (laughs).
 
中島飛行機でも、群馬の小泉製作所から所沢飛行場までやはり牛で引っ張っていました。一部、あまりにも凹凸があるので、コンクリートで舗装したところがあって、これは今も残っています。実は、「となりのトトロ」でサツキがトトロと傘をさして立っているバス停がそこなんですよ。広いのに人気がなくて、横にお稲荷さんがあるという不思議な道だったのですが、今は周りの木が切られてしまって、まるで違った景色になってしまいました。
The Nakajima Aircraft Company also used ox carts to transport the aircraft it made at its Koizumi plant in Gunma Prefecture to the Tokorozawa airfield in Saitama. The road between the two had a lot of rough spots, and there are still sections today that are filled in with concrete. The road with the bus stop where Satsuki stands holding an umbrella in the rain with Totoro in that animated film of mine is the same road. It’s an interesting road, fairly wide and has a shrine for the Inari deity off to the side of it, but is not that well known. Sadly that area looks completely different today now that most of the trees have been cut down.
 
半藤:映画の中で、ドイツから爆撃機ライセンス生産権を買い取るお金で、どれだけの国民が飢えをいやせるか、というセリフがありましたが、これも持たざる国、日本にとっては深刻な問題でした。兵器というものがいかに高価なものかを端的に示す例として、私はよく挙げるのですが、大正十一年、ワシントン会議で、主力艦建造に枷がはめられました。そのとき、造船所の工員さんと鉄が余ったんですね。そこで隅田川に次々と橋が架けられた。デザイン的に見事な「橋の展覧会場」のようにいろいろな橋が架けられています。さらには、この時期、鉄道などのインフラ整備も進みます。逆に言えば、それだけ軍事費が膨れ上がっていたことの表れでもあった。
Hando: Getting back to Japan’s deep-rooted problem of being a “have-not” nation, there was a line in The Wind Rises which I felt really drove that point home. When Japan bought the license from Germany to manufacture bombers, one of the characters says something like “I wonder how many people here in Japan are going to end up starving as result of us dumping all this money on a manufacturing license for a tool of war.” Weapons cost a lot of money to make, money that could be put to better use elsewhere. A good example of this is when the restrictions were placed on the construction of mainstay naval craft by the Washington Naval Treaty signed in 1922. This left Japan with a surplus of engineers and steel, which it devoted to building a number of bridges over the Sumida River (which runs along the eastern part of Tokyo). Indeed, they built so many they turned the river into this kind of bridge exhibit, with a lot of different designs on display for the public. This same period also saw Japan make significant headway in fleshing out its railroad infrastructure. These developments really show how much money Japan’s military ate up and took away from the public’s benefit.

 

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Source: Tokyo University
 
宮崎:荒川放水路を作った費用が、巡洋艦一隻分だったといいますから、軍艦ってものすごく高価だったんですね。
Miyazaki: Naval aircraft definitely cost a lot of money. The flood control system for the Arakawa River supposedly cost about the same amount as a battle cruiser.

 

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Propaganda poster from 1938 telling citizens to put their industrial trash to work

Source: Propaganda Posters: A Window into Wartime Japan (プロパガンダポスターに見る日本の戦争)

「風立ちぬ」戦争と日本人 The Wind Rises: The Japanese War Experience (Part 1)

宮崎駿半藤一利の座談会 (2013年08月)からの抜粋
Excerpts from Dialogue between Hayao Miyazaki and Kazutoshi Hando (August 2013):
 

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Source: Eiga.com
 
半藤一利:映画(風立ちぬ)は、昭和の初め、日本が戦争の泥沼にはまっていく時期を舞台に、そこに生きた人たち、暮らしぶりや風景が丁寧に描かれています。私は昭和5年の生まれですが、父や母の生きたのはこんな風景だったのだろうか、という感慨がありました。そこで、零戦九六式艦上戦闘機などの名機を設計した堀越二郎という実在の人物を主人公にした。これも初めての試みですね。そこに、堀辰雄ラブロマンス「風立ちぬ」や「菜穂子」の世界が入ってくる。私は、これはまさに「宮崎版昭和史」だと思いました。だから、いささか気が早い話だけども、次回作はますます大変ではないかと、勝手な感想を持ったわけです。
Kazutoshi Hando: The Wind Rises painstakingly depicts the early part of the Showa Period (Dec 1926-Jan 1989), providing us a window into people’s lives and what Japan looked like as it became mired in the mud of war. I was born in Showa 5 (1930), and as I watched the film, I couldn’t help but think that this is the world my parents knew. But you went and tried something new: creating a picture about this period whose main protagonist was Jiro Horikoshi, a historical figure responsible for the design of the Mitsubishi Zero Fighter and Navy Type 96 Carrier-based Fighter (A5M). You then mixed in elements from Tatsuo Hori’s romantic novels The Wind Has Risen and Naoko. I really felt like I was watching the definitive Miyazaki account of the early Showa Period. I may be getting ahead of myself, but I couldn’t help but think you’ve really made it tough for yourself going into the next picture you make.
 
宮崎駿:おそれいります。でも、この先はもうないから大丈夫ですよ。
Hayao Miyazaki: Well thank you very much for your sentiments. But don’t go worrying about me. I’m pretty much done making pictures.
 
半藤:そのことありませんよ。私なんて今年で八十三になりましたが、いまだに現役です(笑)。
Hando: I’m not buying that. Look at me. I just turned 83 this year (2013), and I’m still working away (chuckles).
 
宮崎:そう言われると一言もありませんが(笑)。これまでと同じようなやり方でアニメーションを作るのは、もうやめた方がいいと思っているんです。プロデューサー(鈴木敏夫氏)なんかは「これは宮さんの遺言ですね」と言っていますよ。今回の「風立ちぬ」は構想からだと5年、作画に入ってから数えても2年かかりました。
Miyazaki: When you put it like that, there’s really nothing I can say (chuckles). Actually, I’m thinking about bidding farewell to the way I’ve made movies over the years. Our producer at Ghibli (Toshio Suzuki) said he thinks The Wind Rises is kind of my last will and testament. The film took five years to make when counting back to the concept stage, and two years to complete when going from the point when we began hammering out the drawings.
 

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半藤一利(左)と宮崎駿(右)
Kazutoshi Hando (left) and Hayao Miyazaki (right)
Source: J-cast News
 
半藤:五年もですか?
Hando: Five years in total…
 
宮崎:すると、あと五年後に自分がどうなっているか、何を作るべきなのか、と考えると、なかなか難しいですね。もともと、この「風立ちぬ」は前作「崖の上のポニョ」の後に、ある模型雑誌に連載したカラー漫画だったんです。僕は、アニメーションは子供のために作る、という考えなので、この漫画はいわば趣味として描いていたものでした。堀越二郎はじめ登場人物たちみんな豚にしてしまったり。
Miyazaki: It’s tough for me to imagine what I’ll be like five years down the road, or what kind of film I should make. Originally, The Wind Rises was just this serial color manga insert (note: manga are generally black and white) for a model magazine that I was working on after the release of the Ponyo. Children are always at the forefront for me when I do animation, and this manga was just something I was doing for fun. That was reflected in the way I depicted the characters, drawing Jiro Horikoshi and others as pigs.
 
宮崎:今はファンタジーを作ることがますます難しくなっています。東日本大震災原発事故などに直面し、映画の中だけ幸せ、なんてありえない。そう考えてしまうんです。そこに鈴木プロデューサーが “「風立ちぬ」をやりましょう”と提案してきた。しかし、零戦の設計者が主人公で、戦前の日本が舞台では、どうやっても子供が土俵の外に置かれてしまう。そうしたら、“子供たちもいつか大人になって分かる日がくる”と言った人間がいて、そうかも知れない、と。
Miyazaki: It’s gotten much tougher to do fantasy now. The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear disaster have weighed heavy on the mind, making me feel that it’s impossible for films to be this joyful place of refuge. But producer Suzuki approached me and said we should do The Wind Rises. I was a little reluctant at first given that the subject matter isn’t exactly tailored made for kids, especially since it takes place in pre-war Japan and the main protagonist is the man who engineered the Zero Fighter. Then someone said that there will come a day when these kids grow up, and then they’ll be able to understand the film. I thought to myself, yeah, that might be the case.
 
堀越は宮崎さん本人ではありせんか
Horikoshi as a reflection of Miyazaki himself
 
半藤: なるほど。それにしても、堀越二郎堀辰雄の世界に送り込むという着想には、意表をつかれました。堀越二郎堀辰雄は一歳違いなんですね。されに言えば、堀越が零戦の開発に取り組み始めたのが昭和十二年 (1937)。そして堀が「風立ちぬ」を書き上げたのも同じ昭和十二年なんのです。一見まるで毛色の違う、しかしまさしく同時代を生きた二人を結びつけたのは非凡なアイデアですよ。そもそも、なぜ堀越二郎を主人公に、と考えたのですか?
Hando: I see. But I feel that you surprised a lot of people by deciding to put Jiro Horikoshi into the world of Tatsuo Hori. The two men were only a year apart in real life. On top of that, the year Horikoshi began developing the Zero Fighter was 1937, the same year in which Hori finished writing his novel The Wind Has Risen. On the surface these look like two completely different individuals, but they both lived through the same period of history. I thought it was a stroke of genius to create that connection between the two. Indeed, what led you to settle on Jiro Horikoshi as the main character for your film?
 

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実際の堀越二郎
Jiro Horikoshi
Source: BS Asahi

宮崎: 彼を描かないと、この国のおかしさが描けないと思ったんです。僕は、ある時まで「戦前」という時代を想像できませんでした。目の前は焼け野原だらけで、あれだけの人が死んだ。南方や中国では悲惨なことをいっぱい起こしたことを知ると、あまりにもこの国が屈辱的に感じられ、戦前の日本は、”灰色の世界”としか思えなかった。そんな中で、人はどうやって生きたのか。自分の親父はいい時代だったと言っていました。どうも、うまくかみ合わなかった。それと、ヒコーキ好きや、架空戦記もののマニアから零戦を取り戻したかったんです。
Miyazaki: I felt that portraying him was crucial to showing how strange this country is. For a long time I couldn’t imagine what pre-war Japan was like. As a small child, all I knew was the burned out landscapes (from the bombing raids) and the fact that a lot of people had died. Later on when I learned about all the atrocious things that Japan had done in southern Asia and in China, I felt a sense of humiliation about this country. Pre-war Japan was simply this “gray world” to me, and I always wondered how people went about their lives in that period. My father said it was a great time. Reflecting on all this, things just don’t line up right. Another motivating factor was a desire to wrest the Zero Fighter back from all those airplane aficionados and people obsessed with fictional war accounts.
 

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風立ちぬ」での零戦
Zero Fighter in The Wind Rises
Source: Studio Ghibli
 
宮崎: 堀越二郎という人は、著書を読んでみても、奥歯に物が挟まっている 感じで、本音が分からないところがありますね。ただ、零戦のテスト飛行を見つめて、一言「美しい」と洩らしている。僕は、これが堀越の本音だったと思ったんです。彼が作りたかったのは戦闘機ではなく、美しい飛行機だった。
Miyazki: Books about Jiro Horikoshi leave you with the impression that he was not really one to open up, making it tough to know what he thought. There’s an account of him observing one of the Zero Fighter test flights, and the only thing he said was “that’s beautiful”. But I really latched on to that, because I felt it provides us with a window into his mind. He didn’t want to create a fighter plane. I believe that all he really wanted to do was produce a beautiful piece of aircraft. 
 
半藤: 零戦の設計を巡っては、海軍内で大論争が起きました。飛行隊長の源田実は格闘能力、つまり運動性能を優先させろと言い、海軍航空廠(かいぐんこうくうしょう)の柴田武雄は速度と航続距離を要求する。私は、二人とも会って話を聞いたことがありますが、戦後になっても仇敵のように相手を罵り合っていましたね。結局、設計者の堀越には、両方とも満たせという無理難題が押し付けられたのですが、堀越はそれを見事にクリアしました。そこのあたりを、宮崎さんは映画の中で、とても戯画的に処理していて、痛快でした。
Hando: There was an intense debate within the Imperial Japanese Navy about what kind of plane the Zero Fighter should be. Captain Minoru Genda, who headed his own fighter squadrons, was adamant that the craft possess excellent maneuverability that would give it an edge in dogfights. On the opposite side of the table was Captain Takeo Shibata from the Naval Aeronautical Technology Institution. The most important criteria for him were speed and the ability to fly long distances. I had the opportunity to meet with both of these men years after the war, and even then they still despised each other, cursing the other guy whenever talking about him. Anyway, they thrust this impossible engineering task on Horikoshi, demanding that he meet both of their demands. And yet, Horikoshi was able to deliver on both, and he did so magnificently. I really got a kick out of your caricaturized depictions of these two officers in the film.

 

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源田実少佐(左)と柴田武雄少佐(右)
Captain Minoru Genda (left) and Captain Takeo Shibata (right)
Source: Wikipedia Commons

 

宮崎:戦後、源田は、東京大空襲を指揮したカーティス・ルメイにわざわざ勲章を与えた人物ですね。そんな連中のことを真面目に描きたくなかったんです。
Miyazaki: Speaking of Genda, after the war he received a special honor from Curtis LeMay, the mastermind behind the Great Tokyo Air Raid. I didn’t want to give a proper depiction of guys like Genda.
 
半藤: 彼らが帰った後、上司に「お前聞いていないだろう?」と聞かれて、堀越が「はい」と答える(笑)。我々は軍部の無理な要求を押し付けられた堀越の苦悩を考えがちですが、宮崎さんは、堀越はそんなことは関係なく、自分の好きな、美しい飛行機を作ったのだ、と考える。これは新しい解釈だと思いました。
Hando: Horikoshi’s superiors asked him, “you didn’t hear all that, did you” after the Navy guys left, to which he replied, “No I didn’t” (chuckles). We tend to think that Horikoshi really struggled with the impossible demands of the military, but it seems you felt he didn’t really worry about that. He just went about making the beautiful plane that he wanted to created. I found that to be a new take on the individual.
 
宮崎: そうですね、もしかすると自分の理想の飛行機に、軍の要求を合わせたではないか、と。。。
Miyazaki: I think so. Perhaps all he was doing was meshing the spec demands of the military with the type of beautiful plane that he wanted to make.
 
半藤: その堀越は、宮崎さん本人ではありませんか?周りの要求はどうあろうと、俺は俺の好きなものを作るという信念を貫く。(脇を見て)。プロデューサーさん、そうでしょう(笑)。
Hando: Could it be that the Horikoshi we see in the film is really a reflection of yourself, Miyazaki-san? You just go about making the film that you want to make, paying little heed to the demands of those around you. (Looks off to the side to the producer), isn’t that right? (everyone laughs)
 
宮崎: 僕はそれしか出来ないからやっているだけです(笑)。
Miyazaki: That’s all I can do. Can’t really help it because that’s who I am (laughs).
 
半藤: さらに言えば、 堀越さんたちが九六式艦戦や零戦を設計していた当時、飛行機が次の戦争の主役になると、予測できた人は、山本五十六などごく少数の人たちだけだったのです。だから、堀越さんたちの仕事は、非常に孤独な戦いでもあった。
Hando: When Horikoshi and his colleagues were designing the Zero Fighter and Navy Type 96 Carrier-based Fighter (A5M), Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was probably one of the few people among the Japanese military brass that recognized that aircraft would take center stage in the next major war. Horikoshi and his colleagues’ work was ultimately a very lonely task indeed.
 

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山本五十六
Isoroku Yamamoto
Source: Nishinippon Shimbun
 
半藤: また、これも「遅れてきた国」の悲しさなのですが、昭和八、九年ごろには、先進諸国では、エネルギーの主役が石炭から石油に移るという大転換を迎えていたのです。ところが、日本の軍部のほとんどは、依然として石炭中心のエネルギー観のままだった。第二次大戦の主役となったのは、飛行機と戦車でしたが、どちらも石油がないと動けない。石油への転換についていけなかったということは、その意味で致命的でした。
Hando: Sadly, the fact that many in the Japanese military were slow to recognize the importance of airplanes in combat reflected how Japan always lagged behind the more advanced nations of the world. In 1933-34, these nations were already making the switch from coal to petroleum as their main source of energy. However, the majority of Japan’s military brass was still stuck on coal. Aircraft and tanks were two of the main weapons in WW2, and both of these needed gasoline to run. In that respect, Japan’s inability to keep pace with other countries and make the switch to oil as its main energy source proved fatal.
 
宮崎: その意味では、今も似たような状況にありますね。石油文明が終わりにさしかかり、原子力が生き詰まっているのに、まだ日本は大転換に舵を切れないでいます。堀越や本庄(堀越の同僚)は十年の遅れを必死になって追いかけたのですが、残念なことに追いつけなかった。
Miyazaki: Listening to you say that, I feel that Japan is standing at a similar crossroads right now. This oil-driven civilization of ours is coming to an end, and things don’t look all that bright for nuclear power. And yet, even though the writing’s on the wall, Japan can’t seem to take that first step forward and pursue the change that is needed. Horikoshi and Honjo (Horikoshi’s colleague) gave it their all trying to close that 10 year technological gap, but unfortunately in the end they failed.  

月夜が成す闇と光の一体感 Moonlit Nights and the Duality of Light and Dark

日本の戦国時代史上最も有名の合戦を描く、超絶歴史エンターテインメントと称された宮下秀樹が書いた「桶狭間戦記 」という漫画をこの間、また再読することにした。何回も再読したこの漫画だけど、いつも新たな発見があり、それがまた新た「問い掛け」を投ずる。今回の再読で特に印象に残ったシーンは三国同盟(今川、北条、武田)が結ばれた会見を開く前に今川義元と彼の軍師且つ師匠でもあった臨済宗の禅僧の太原雪斎が交わす会話のシーンである。義元は弟子たる一方で、このシーンで師と弟子の立場が逆になり、問いを出すのは義元の方である。交わした禅問答は下記の通り。

''Okehazama Senki (Annals of Okehazama)'' is an incredible piece of historical fiction that looks at the most famous battle in Japan's Warring States Period. Recently I decided to this series for the umpteenth time, and each time brings a new discovery that also raises new questions. One scene that really stuck with me this time around was the conversation that Yoshimoto Imagawa had with Taigen Sessai, the Rinzai sect Zen priest who served as his military adviser and teacher, ahead of the meeting that led to the alliance between the Imagawa, Hojo, and Takeda clans. In this particular scene their roles are reversed, with Yoshimoto in the teacher's chair and Sessai the student. The conversation plays out in a typical Zen question-answer dialogue. 

 

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Kodansha


義元:作麼生(そもさん)
雪斎:説破(せっぱ)
義元:何故、月は輝く?
雪斎:闇。闇深きほど月は輝かん。
義元:ワッハッハー。然らば闇が去った後は、如何にかに輝く?
Yoshimoto: Riddle me this.
Sessai: And what riddle may that be?
Yoshimoto: How is it that the moon shines?
Sessai: Darkness. The darker it is, the brighter the moon shines.
Yoshimoto: Hahaha. Very true. But tell me, how does the moon shine once the darkness has gone?

 

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Kodansha


さて、これをどう解釈するのか。拙僧から見ると、太陽の光があまりにも眩しく、凝視することも出来ず、他の光も呑み込まれてしまう。しかし、月の光がそれほど膨大ではなく、夜の闇と共演するからこそその明かりをじっと見ることが出来るし、その麗しさを堪能できる。つまり、月の輝きは独奏ではく、協奏に候。まさにスターウォーズにおけるフォースの存在の如し。#桶狭間戦記 #禅問答 #今川義元 #太原雪斎 #闇と光 #フォース #スターウォーズ
So what exactly does this mean? My interpretation is this. The sun is so incredibly bright, we are unable to stare into its light. Indeed, the light of the sun drowns out all other light. That is not the case with the moon, for it is far smaller in scale. It shares the stage the darkness of night, which allows us to stare into its light and appreciate its beauty.  The moon is not solo performer, but part of a grander ensemble. In many respects, that's the nature of the Force we see in Star Wars.

 

 

漢字を通して見るベーダーという闇 Understanding the Darkness that Is Vader through Kanji

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中国文化史の研究家である阿辻哲次(京都大学)の助言を頂いてスターウォーズ新作の映画の小説の翻訳に携わった稲村広香が編集した「スターウォーズ:漢字の奥義」は興味深い一冊だ。「漢字を知れば、宇宙が、人間が、己が解る」というテーマに基づいて、「本書は漢字をキーワードとしてスターウォーズの場面を読み解こうとするものです..... いくつの漢字をじっと見ていると、そこにジェダイの光が、シスの闇が見えてくる..... ヨーダの言葉に含まれる洞察や、アナキンの苦しみが現れている気がするのです。スターウォーズ世界の根底に、東洋思想にも通じる理念を感じる方は多いではないでしょうか?(本書の''はじめに''より)。#スターウォーズ #東洋思想 #漢字 #フォースと共にあらんことを #ジェダイ #シス #光と闇 
"Star Wars: Kanji Story" is fascinating work put together by the Japanese translator of the novel adaptations of the Star Wars sequels Hiroka Inamura, who enlisted the help of Chinese literary  scholar Tetsuji Atsuji (Kyoto University). The book's premise explores how knowledge of kanji (Chinese characters) helps to unlock understanding of the cosmos, humanity, and ourselves. "This book uses kanji as key concepts for breaking down different scenes in Star Wars... Staring at these characters, we come to see the light of the Jedi and the darkness of the Sith... It's as if they provide us a look into perception found within Yoda's teachings, and the anguish within Anakin. Indeed, many probably feel that there is a connection with Eastern philosophy and intellectual thought that lies at the heart of the Star Wars universe." (excerpt from prologue of  "Mastering Kanji through Star Wars"). 

 

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取り上げられた43文字の中に特に興味深いのは「闇」という字である。フォースのダークサイドの話になると、邦訳でこの字と「暗」が必ず用いられている。例えば、エピソード3のオビ・ワンとアナキンの惑星ムスタファ―の決闘のの終わりにオビ・ワンがアナキンに向けて言い放つこのセリフ:「選ばれし者だった。暗黒卿(シス)を倒すはずのお前が、暗黒卿につくとは。フォースにバランスをもたらすはずが、闇にとらわれてしまった。」
The book takes a look at 43 different kanji characters. One that was especially intriguing is 闇 (yami; "darkness"). When talking about the Dark Side in Japanese, this character/word is always used along with 暗 (kurai/an; "dark"). One great example is in this passage from the end of Obi Wan and Anakin's battle on Mustafar: "You were the chosen one! It was said that you would destroy the Sith, not join them! Bring balance to the Force, not leave it in darkness (闇)!"


 この漢字の成り立ちについて稲村氏がこう解説する:「"闇"は"門"と、読みをあらわす音符"音 (イム→アム)"の文字で構成され、"門"を閉ざすことを意味する。夜に行われた祭祀で、"門"の向こうから"音"が聞こえるのを聞いて、神の訪れを認識したという説もある。同様に、"暗"は太陽の形を示す"日"と、読みをあらわす"音"から成り、日が隠れて"くらい"という意を示す。"闇"と"暗"は意だけはなく、読みも成り立ちもよく似ているわけだ。」
Inamura explains the evolution of the character 闇 (yami) as follows: "The kanji 闇 (yami) consists of two parts.  The first is 門(mon). The second is '音', which serves as the reading of the character ('imu', then later 'amu').  It has the meaning of 'sound'. When combined together, the completed kanji conveys the meaning of 'shut behind the gate'. One explanation for the conception of this character was the special rituals performed at night, with the 'sound' of the spirits heard coming from beyond the gate. A similar process lays behind the development of the character 暗 (kurai/an). The first part of the character is 日 (nichi, hi, jitsu) for 'sun', with the second being the same 音 from which the completed character derives its meaning. Taken together, the kanji 暗 implies the meaning of "sun hiding". The underlying conception and inherent meaning of 闇 and 暗 are quite similar."

 

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この解説を読んだとき、拙僧が特に注目したのは「門を閉ざす」との一言だった。たった一つのイメージでベーダーという存在のすべてが凝縮されているからだ。ベーダ―はこの闇という字に込められている意味を具現している。敢えて言うなら、アナキンが闇に墜ちたというのは、アナキンの光が門の中に閉ざされたとも解釈できる。映画でこれが鮮明に表しているのは「シスの復讐」の最後だ。手術台の上に横たわるアナキンの上からマスクが降りていくシーンだ。マスクがアナキンの顔の真上にくるとアナキンの目に恐怖その者が映って、そしてカメラの目線がアナキンの目線となる。真上を見上げながらマスクが降りてきて、そして着用。その瞬間にアナキンという存在が闇たるベーダ―の中に完全に閉ざされ、その閉塞感から生まれる苦しみがベーダ―の原動力となる。
The one element of this explanation that really caught my attention was the reference to being "shut behind the gate". That single image conveys everything about the essence of Vader's identity. Indeed, Vader is the personification of the meaning imbued within the character 闇 (yami). Interpreted differently, Anakin's fall into darkness can be viewed as the light of Anakin being locked away, imprisoned. This take is vividly portrayed at the end of Revenge of the Sith, Anakin is laid out on the surgical table, with the mask coming down from straight above his head. Right when the mask comes above Anakin's face, we see fear reflected in his eyes. The camera then switches to Anakin's perspective, and we see the mask coming straight down, then locking into place. At that instant, the persona of Anakin is completely locked away. The ensuing sense of imprisonment that wells up gives rise to the pain that becomes engine which drives Vader. 

 

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でも、どの門は永遠に閉ざされることはない。いつか、誰かにその門を開ける、あるいは破壊する。アナキンを閉ざした闇の門も永久に閉まったままとならなかった。オビ・ワンやヨーダがかつてのジェダイの価値観に捕らわれて、一度闇に墜ちたものは光に戻ることができんと確信していた。しかし、「闇」という字に基づいた視点から見れば、その理解が間違っていたことになる。その門さえ開ければ・壊されば、閉ざされた光がまた外へ逃れる。その点で、ルークが「闇」の在り様を理解できた。父への必死の訴えがその門を叩いて、アナキンの光を解放した。闇というのは、底無しのことではない。開閉できる門に候。
However, no gate remains closed forever. There comes a time when someone opens the door or knocks it down. In much the same fashion, the "dark gate" that shut away the person that was Anakin did not remain closed permanently. Obi Wan and Yoda were captive to the old values of the Jedi, believing that once someone falls into darkness, there is no way for them to come back to the light. Yet, when we adopt a different view and look at Vader in terms of the "闇(yami)" character, we see that this view of the darkness was flawed. There is light inside, and all that needs to be done to let it out is to open/smash down the door. In that sense, Luke understood this facet of "闇(yami)", and it was his fervent supplication that shattered the gate and released the light that was Anakin. The meaning of the kanji character "闇(yami)"  implies that darkness is not a bottomless pit. Rather, it's a gate that can be opened and closed.