The Bridge Between Light and Dark: Princess Mononoke, Duality, and the Force 闇と光の掛橋:もののけ姫と双対性、そしてそこに窺えるフォース

 

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スターウォーズの世界観を形成する概念と言えばまず「フォース」が思い浮かぶのだ。このフォースには「光」と「闇」とそれぞれの面で構成され、オリジナルトリロジーでは主人公であるルークスカイウォーカーを通して「光」がどのように「闇」に克服されるかが描かれている。フォースは「光」と「闇」の二重性を持ちつつ、ジェダイが基本的に「闇」を否定し、フォースの「光」に頼る道を選ぶ。その闇に対する否定感を醸成させた「恐れ」はこのヨーダの名言に窺える:

The Force is sure to come to mind when thinking of concepts that help shape the worldviews of the Star Wars saga. It consists of two sides, the light and the dark, and in the original trilogy Luke Skywalker is used as the vehicle for showing how the light vanquishes the dark. Despite the inherent duality of the Force, the Jedi essentially reject the dark, eschewing a path grounded in the light. The sense of fear fomenting this rejection of the darkness is encapsulated in this classic line of Master Yoda:

 

「一度、闇の道を進み始めたら、闇が一生を征服し、食い尽くすじゃろう。」

“Once you start down the Dark Path, forever will it dominate your destiny, consume you it will.”

 

要するに、フォースの一面である闇を恐れるのあまり、ジェダイがその面をフォースから切り離そうとする教義を成立させた。その結果、フォースの二重性を見失って、不安定の方へ傾いてしまった。ただし、皮肉にもヨーダによると、「恐れ」こそが闇へ導いてしまう。

In short, the Jedi’s consuming fear of the Dark Side gave rise to a dogma that essentially sought to sever the darkness from the Force. This caused them to lose sight of the inherent duality of the Force, tilting them towards the plane of imbalance. Ironically, Yoda himself said that it was fear which lead to the Dark Side:

 

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Source: Wookiepedia

 

「恐れはダーク・サイドに通じる道じゃ。恐れは怒りを呼ぶ。怒りは憎しみを呼ぶ。憎しみは苦しみを呼ぶ。」
“Fear is the path to the dark side. Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering.”

 

一方、日本へ目を向けると、二重性のある価値観が昔から大切にしてきた。独特の編集工学を確立している松岡正剛がこれを「デュアルスタンダード」と呼んでいる。松岡著作の「日本文化の核心」ではこの「ヂュアルスタンダード」をこう解説する: “デュアル”とは「行ったり来たり出来る」ということ、また「双対性(デュアリティ)」を活かすということです… こうして、(日本において)和漢の相違の共存と変換を仕組んだことが漢風文化と国風文化という対比を形作っていくことになるのです。”

Meanwhile, Japan has long cherished a view grounded in a sense of duality. Seigo Matsuoka, a Japanese scholar who has fashioned his own original style of “editorial engineering”, refers to this as Japan’s “dual standard”. He provides a nice explanation of this in his book The Core of Japanese Culture: “This idea of ‘dual’ in Japan implies this sense of going and coming, of being able to apply this sense of duality. With this approach, Japan was able to produce a fertile soil in which Japanese and Chinese culture could co-exist and be refashioned; this gave rise to this duality composed of Chinese and indigenous Japanese culture.”

 

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この「双対性(デュアリティ)」は「もののけ姫」を初め多くの宮崎駿監督の作品に現れている。「もののけ姫」の宣伝コピーを担当した糸井重里は1997年に映画の公開前のンタビューでこう語った: “「ナウシカ」の辺りからそうなんですけど、宮崎さんの中では、物事を善悪で切ってないんです。勧善懲悪で物語に決着をつけない。これは宮崎作品の根底にあるものの一つであって、だからこれだけ人の心を惹きつけているものである。善悪を超えたものという思想が、前は通奏低音みたいに流れていたのが、今回はメロディをとっている。そうかと思うと、自然と人間というもの、宮崎にとっては対立項ではない。自然だ、人間だ、善だ、悪だっていうものが全部 “ただある”状態で世の中にあるわけですよね。」

The idea of duality is something evident in many works by Hayao Miyazaki, including Princess Mononoke. Shigesato Itoi, who was tasked with coming up with the catch copy to promote Princess Mononoke, elaborated on this in a special interview conducted ahead of the film’s release in 1997: “Nausica (of the Wind Valley) is one example that comes to mind, but Miyazaki’s way of thinking does not divorce good from evil. He does not finish his films on a note of poetic justice being served. This is basically a fundamental feature of the art he produces, and I feel that is what makes his films captivating for audiences. This idea that transcends good and evil previously served as the so-called basso continuo of his films, but in Princess Mononoke it is the melody. When you frame things this way, you see that Miyazaki does not view human beings and nature as being set against each other. Nature, humanity, good, evil… They all simply ‘just are’ in this world. That’s it.”

 

 宮崎監督は漫画版『風の谷のナウシカ』のクライマックスで、ナウシカに以下の台詞を語らせている。「いのちは闇の中にまたたく光だ」と。これは、文明の全てを是として、「正義の光」にたとえがちな人間中心主義に対する宮崎監督流のアンチテーゼである。宮崎監督は、以前以下のように語っていた。

Hayao Miyazaki depicts Nausica making the following statement in the climax of the manga version of his tale Nausica of the Valley of the Wind: “Life is but a light flickering in the darkness.” This line embodies Miyazaki’s own antithesis to humanocentrism, which tends to view human civilization as the embodiment of justice, in the right and in the light. The following quotes here provides more insight into Miyazaki’s thoughts on this:


アメリカ映画に限らないのですが、ヨーロッパからはいってくるファンタジーがありますが、光と闇が闘っていつも光が善なのです。悪い闇がのさばってくるのを、光の側の人間がそれを退治する。それと同じ考えが日本をむしばんでいると思います。」

“Western culture, and this includes both American films and fantasy works from Europe, always depicts light as the force of good in the battle between the light and dark. These works show human beings standing on the side of light, vanquishing the forces of darkness that seek to throw their weight around. I feel this line of thought is eating away at Japan.”

 

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Source: The Princess Mononoke


「森と闇が強い時代には、光は光明そのものだったのでしょうね。でも、人間のほうが強くなって光ばかりになると、闇もたいせつなんだと気がつくわけです。私は闇のほうにちょっと味方をしたくなっているのですが。」(鼎談集『時代の風音』)

“Light was that ray of hope in a time when the forest and darkness held sway. However, as human beings grew in strength, light came to dominate everything. It was here that people came to recognize the importance that the darkness holds. In my case, I find myself more of a fan of the darkness.” (Three-person dialogue “Wind Song of the Age”)

 

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Source: The Princess Mononoke

 

作中ではこの「闇たる自然」を敵対視するのはエボシ御前が率いるタタラ集団である。その集団の名前の通り、製鉄を行う拠点はタタラ場といい、そこは物語の主な舞台となるシシ神の森と隣接する。製鉄するためには樹木を焼いてたくさんの木炭が必要としていた。つまり、森を破壊せずに製鉄ができない。宮崎氏がこう語る:「農具に道具類。鉄は人間の生活を革命的に変えた。鉄を作るため、人は樹を切った。人類の歴史の繁栄は、樹を切ってきた歴史でもある」。森を伐採するのは、未開の世界(闇)を開拓された地(光)とすることだ。

Lady Eboshi and the tataraba (iron works) community she leads view the seemingly dark presence of nature as a threat. Their forge sits on the edge of the Shishigami forest, and serves as one of the main stages for the events of the film. The tataraba style of producing steel depicted in the film required lots of charcoal, and to do this they cut down lots of trees to create the charcoal to fire the forge. In short, the only way they could manufacture steel was by laying waste to the forest. Miyazaki describes it in this light: “Iron/steel transformed the fabric of human life, beginning with farm equipment and other tools. However, human beings needed to cut down trees to create this iron/steel. Viewed this way, the prosperity of human society is a history of destruction… the felling of trees.” In cutting down the trees that make up the forest (the darkness), human beings created and developed spheres of civilization (light) .”

 

この考えはエボシ午前がアシタカに向けて突き放す言葉に表れている:「森に光が入り、山犬共が鎮まれば、ここには豊かな国になる」。自然破壊者に違いないが、彼女は開拓と新しい産業の開発、その結果の経済力によって前人未踏の新しい共同体を作った。それも、虐げられ、さげすまれてきた人々を市民として。(The Princess Mononokeからの引用)

This facet of human history is reflected in the words Lady Eboshi flings at Ashitaka in describing the work of the tataraba: “We can make this a prosperous land. To do that, we need to put light into the forest and bring the wolf gods to heel”. The very work of the tatatarba entails the destruction of nature. However, Lady Eboshi perceives her mission to be the development of the land and the creation of a new industry that yields economic power. Her pursuit of this brought about a new form of communal existence, one that treated people who had been cursed and discriminated against as full-fledged citizens. (Source: The Princess Mononoke)

 

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Source: The Princess Mononoke

 

ここで松岡氏の「ヂュアルスタンダード」の解説にもう一度戻りたいと思う。「“デュアル”とは「行ったり来たり出来る」ということ」。「もののけ姫」の全編を通してこれはまさにアシタカが実現している。タタラ集団(文明たる光)とシシガミの森(自然たる神秘の闇)の間に行ったり来たりしている。どちらにも思いを寄せながら、どちらも敵対視としない。自分が食らった呪いを解ける鍵となるのは、共存への道を切り開けることである。

Here I’d like to return to the notion of “dual standard” put forward by Matsuoka: “this sense of going and coming”. This is essentially what Ashitaka does throughout the entirety of the film of Princess Mononoke. He repeatedly goes back and forth between the tataraba, representative of the light of civilization and human society, and the Shishigami Forest, the sacred darkness of nature. He bears both in mind, but does not view either as an opposing force. The key to lifting the curse that has befallen him is blazing a path towards coexistence.


もののけ姫』の物語の後、タタラ場に残ったアシタカは、サンと話し合いながら樹を伐り続け、動植物を殺して食べ、鉄を作り続けることになる。それは、余りに困難な共生構造である。だが、破壊と殺戮の中にしか人間の存続はない。その人間としての業を実感しながら生きることは、心に闇を持つことではないか。心を光で満たすことが人間中心主義の破壊と生命倫理の崩壊につながるのなら、逆に心に闇を持つことが破壊の抑制と生命倫理の再生につながるのではないか。(「もののけ姫読み解く:思想の物語」からの引用)

The ending scenes of the film show that while Ashitaka will stay in touch with San, he elects to remain at the tataraba (iron works). This means that he will work with the rest of the community as they continue to make steel, cutting down the trees of the forest and taking their sustenance (animals, vegetables, etc.) from nature. Through these scenes, Miyazaki hints at the incredible difficulty Ashitaka faces in his pursuit of coexistence. At the same time, though, we see how death and destruction are the sole avenues for the perpetuation of human existence. It seems that Miyazaki’s message here is that holding darkness in our hearts means owning up to our sins against nature as we live our lives. If we focus on filling our soul solely with light, we risk the destruction born of humanocentrism and the collapse of bioethics. Miyazaki appears to be making a case for harboring a bit of darkness in our hearts, arguing that it can help us curb the destruction we cause as human beings and restore that bioethical balance. ("An Intellectual Tale" from Dissecting Princess Mononoke).

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Source: The Princess Mononoke


共に生きる道を選んだアシタカがやろうとしていたのは自然と人間社会の掛橋になろうとすることだった。それはまさに理想のジェダイの姿ではないかと拙僧が思う。闇と光の掛橋となって、行ったり来たりすることが出来る。これは松岡氏がいう「双対性(デュアリティ)」を活かす」こと。スターウォーズではアナキン・スカイウォーカーのパダワンであったアソーカ・タノのキャラクターデザインをしたときデイヴ・フィロニー監督がもののけ姫、つまりサンを参考にした話はよく知られている。しかし、内面的で見てみると、アソーカはサンよりアシタカの方に似ているではないかと思う。彼女がジェダイ騎士団を後にして、そしてジェダイの教義を捨てて、本来のフォースの掛橋の意味を探ろうとする道を選んだ。それはアシタカが追究する共存に候。

Ashitaka’s pursuit of co-existence can be taken as a quest to become a bridge between nature and human society. I feel this provides the ideal model of what a Jedi should strive to be: a bridge for passing back and forth from the Light and Dark. This equates to the application of duality that Matsuoka refers to. It is well-known that director Dave Filoni used San as inspiration for the character design of Ahsoka Tano, the Padawan of Anakin Skywalker. However, the inner qualities of the character of Ahsoka more closely resemble those of Ashitaka, in my view. In leaving the Jedi Order behind, she parted ways with their dogma and sought to discover what it meant to be a bridge of the Force. Essentially, that is akin to the very quest of co-existence that Ashitaka seeks to achieve.

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Source: Ign Japan


出所:

もののけ姫読み解く」

「The Princess Mononoke」
「日本文化の核心」
Sources:
Dissecting Princess Mononoke
The Princess Mononoke
The Core of Japanese Culture

Conversation with "Star Wars: Visions" Directors of "Tatooine Rhapsody" and "Lop & Ochō"

日本語という言語の世界への入り口の一つはアニメだった。カウボーイビバップるろうに剣心を初め、字幕版を見ながら新たに覚えた日本語を必死に聞き取れようとした。その語学的な目標を目指すと同時に、アニメの世界観と豊な表現力も当然堪能した。アニメのお蔭で拙僧の語学の旅に大きな一歩を踏み出せただけではなく、審美と美学に対する価値観がより豊かにもなった。

One of the avenues I used to venture into the world of the Japanese language was anime. I started with the likes of Cowboy Bebop and Rurouni Kenshin, watching the subtitled versions and trying really hard to pick out the new Japanese words I had learned. In addition to this academically driven goal, naturally I also enjoyed the vast expressive potential unique to anime. The medium not only helped me take my first major steps forward on my journey through the Japanese language, but also broadened my own artistic and aesthetic sentiments.

 

スターウォーズのアニメ企画があるらしい」という噂を初めて聞いたときに感じたわくわく感は今も鮮明に覚えている。フォースに織り込まれている日本の宗教観を初め日本の文化がジョージ・ルカース氏が生み出したあの遥か彼方の銀河系に与えた影響が非常に大きかった。それを考えるとアニメを通してスターウォーズをその源(ソース)に戻すのは正しいと思った。「スターウォーズ:ビジョンズ」に関わった日本のアニメスタジオのクリエーター陣はスターウォーズから影響を受けながら、自分が想像するスターウォーズを日本の独特な媒体で新たな表現(ビジョン)を見せてくれた。その意味で、「スターウォーズ:ビジョンズ」で日本文化とスターウォーズの縁の輪が完成された。

 

I vividly remember the excitement I felt when I first caught wind of the rumors about a Star Wars anime project. The galaxy far, far, away conceived by George Lucas was heavily influenced by Japanese culture, such as the Japanese religious worldviews evident in the concept of the Force. In that respect, it felt right to see anime used as a vehicle for bringing Star Wars back to its source. The Japanese creators involved with Star Wars: Visions were all influenced by the saga, and using the unique Japanese medium of anime they showed us a new “vision” of Star Wars rooted in their own imaginations. In that respect, Star Wars: Visions completed that ring connecting the saga and Japanese culture.

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Source: disneyplus.jp

 

下記の対談では、「スターウォーズ:ビジョンズ」の「タトゥイーン・ラプソディ」と「のらうさロップと緋桜お蝶」の監督の二人が自分の作品を始め、スターウォーズに対する思いを楽しく語り合う様子を窺える。元の対談記事はこのサイトから閲覧できるけど、その日本語をベースに英訳を作ってみた。今回の「スターウォーズ:ビジョンズ」は一度限りの企画で済まず、継続的に作っていく価値はあると拙僧が思う。

The following conversation brings together the directors of Tatooine Rhapsody and Lop & Ochō. They have a lot of fun discussing their own contributions to Star Wars: Visions as well as their own thoughts on the Star Wars saga. The original Japanese article can be found at this site, with my English translation below based on that article. I really hope that Star Wars: Vision is more than a one-off project. There is true value in continuing to make these shorts.

 

--(Interviewer) How about you guys start us off by introducing yourselves.

 

Igarashi: I’m Yuki Igarashi, the director behind Lop & Ochō.

Kimura: And I’m Taku Kimura, the director of Tatooine Rhapsody.

*Translation note: The word “Ochō” in Japanese means “butterfly”, and in the Japanese title it is preceded by the word “Hizakura”, which in English translates to “winter cherry blossom”. When you watch the short, you see visual elements sprinkled throughout that allude to the imagery painted by the title. The “hi” part in “hizakura” is written in Kanji as , which means “scarlet” or “crimson”.

 

--So what did you think of each other’s work in Star Wars: Visions?

 

Igarashi: Tatooine Rhapsody was an absolute blast. It had that brimming sense of optimism you get when you watch Episode 4. At the same time, I felt it really pushed the envelope, for it’s the only real short out of the bunch that doesn’t throw in any of those chanbara (“sword frenzy”) elements. The slightly deformed aesthetic of the characters put through that kawaii (cute) Japanese filter was both fresh and equally ambitious.

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Source: Wookiepedia


Kimura: Wow, that’s some high praise! I’m thrilled to hear that’s what you felt.

 

--Taku, what did you think of Lop & Ochō?

Kimura: I thought it was stunning. Simply wonderful. The visual aesthetic in the shots and art was top notch, right on par with what you’d see in a full-length film. That really impressed me. I also loved how you took that idea of “blood ties” that is so central to Star Wars but then explored how you don’t need to be blood relations to be family. I feel that message holds a lot of weight.

 

Igarashi: We really tried to create that feel of anime made in the 1980s and 1990s. The creators making anime at that time were influenced by Star Wars, so we looked at different ways of recreating that feel.

 

Kimura: Did you have a lot of younger people on your team?

 

Igarashi: Yeah, we had quite a few people that were on the younger end of the spectrum. There were also members on our team a decade or so older than me, such as artist Masaji Kaneko and mecha designer Shigeki Izumo. They’re of the generation that grew up on Star Wars, and dreamed about one day doing work which involved that galaxy far, far, away. However, it seems most of the creators working on Tatooine Rhapsody were on the younger side.

 

Kimura: Most of the team was pretty young. In fact, there were more than a few who knew little about Star Wars. That made it a bit tough for me, as I had to give them a crash course on the Star Wars world before we got to work. The galaxy has its own feel, so even the characters lurking in the background need to fit that vibe. This limits the scope of design in those characters as well.

 

Igarashi: One of the goals of these Star Wars: Visions shorts is to bring new fans to that galaxy far, far, away. I feel like many of the younger people in Japan today, in particular the female audience, have not really seen Star Wars. It’d be great if the work our young teams of SW newbies put in on Lop & Ochō and Tatooine Rhapsody get them to think, “hey, this galaxy looks like fun” (chuckles).


The Visions shorts made by the other directors had that veteran feel behind them. I think people that saw Episodes 4-6 when they came out probably have a bit of a different take and perspective on the saga. I almost feel like we owe them an apology of sorts, because we didn’t see the original saga in real time.

 

Kimura: Haha, that would’ve been amazing to see the films when they first came out. What was the first SW film you saw in the theater?

 

Igarashi: My family really wasn’t the theater-going type, so the first one that I saw at the box office was actually Episode 7. Before that, I watched all the original films and prequels when they were broadcast on TV. My face was glued to the television whenever I watched Star Wars. How about you? What was your first Star Wars theater experience?

 

Kimura: My first was Episode 3, but if my memory’s right it was only just barely. I was just a kid at that time, so I couldn’t set off to the theater when I felt like it.

 

Igarashi: I hear you. My theater experiences came after I was able to make my own money. I went to see The Force Awakens on opening day at the Toho cinema in Shinjuku. By that time I was also working in this industry as well.

 

Kimura: You mean the 6:30 p.m. showing!? *Translation note: First showings of TFA in Japan were on Friday opening weekend at 6:30 pm

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Source: cinematoday.jp



Igarashi: No (laughs), I went to the showing right after that. But I did get to take in all the people dressed up like Jedi with their lightsabers for that first showing when I got to the theater. The start of the sequel trilogy (Episodes 7-9) was really special, for you could feel that energy and love for Star Wars. Those days were great.

 

Kimura: That’s awesome. I’d love to see something that brought back that festive atmosphere again. I saw The Last Jedi in Tokyo, but for The Force Awakens I went to a local theater in Shiga. There was nobody with lightsabers at that theater, which left me thinking “man, there are no Jedi in Shiga (laughs).”

*Translation note: Shiga is a prefecture in central Japan which is next to Kyoto. It is a fairly rural prefecture famous for the beautiful Lake Biwa

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Source: The Nippon Foundation

 

--What did you think when you were approached about the Star Wars: Visions project?

 

Igarashi: Honestly, I thought “is this a scam or something” when I first learned about it. About three days after the parts of the anime Keep Your Hands Off Eizouken I did were aired on TV a person at Twin Engine sent me a mail asking if I’d like to get involved in contest to make a Star Wars anime. Seeing a Gmail address made me think something was up (laughs). I’ve heard a similar thing happened to Dave Filoni, the director of The Clone Wars series. He thought someone was joking with him when he first received the call about that project.

 

Kimura: I’ve heard that story, too (chuckles).

 

Igarashi: The scope of the pitch they made for Visions intrigued me. I mean, they basically told us to make a new style of Star Wars, encouraging us to bring our own originality to it and feel free to go beyond the bounds of what already exists. In trying to figure out how far to go with refashioning that galaxy far, far, away, I started thinking about that core essence of Star Wars. I was thoroughly engrossed in The Mandalorian around that time, and that gave me a nice angle in how to approach Visions. Just like that show does, I aimed to create something that the general audience would love, but throw in some Easter eggs that the hard core fans would enjoy. In doing that, I strove to make something that new fans would appreciate.

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Source: starwars.com

 

Kimura: When I first learned about Visions, I didn’t really consider myself as the person that would be involved. I thought that someone else would end up doing it. However, when we got the green light for our story, I began wondering if I was really up to the task (chuckles). Even when work on our short got underway, it never really sank in that I was doing Star Wars. As you said, they pretty much gave us carte blanche to do what we want. I expected most of the other shorts to go with something that put Japanese culture front and center, paying homage to that Kurosawa influence, or throw in a lightsaber. With this in mind, I tried to go a completely different route, and this led me to do something with music.

 

Igarashi: Did you have any personal reason for trying to do something with music, specifically rock?

 

Kimura: Rock has this rebellious streak to it, so I looked to tap into that and portray a band of four that were standing up to the establishment. One thing in Star Wars I really like is how Episode 4 and the Rebels series focus on that team collective. I also felt that if they have jazz music in Star Wars, there is bound to be other styles of music in that galaxy far, far away as well. My decision to go with rock reflected that desire to broaden the musical horizons of Star Wars.

 

Igarashi: So you didn’t go with that idea because you do music yourself?

 

Kimura: Haha, sorry to disappoint, but I’m not a musician. I do love listening to it though.

 

Igarashi: The stillness of the crowd in that first scene of the band playing live really reminded of clubs in Koenji, so I thought you might have firsthand experience with something like that (chuckles).

*Translation note: Koenji here refers to the area around the station of the same name. It’s on the Chuo Line, a train line that runs east-west through Tokyo, and only a couple of stops from Shinjuku. It has a lot of unique bars and music clubs.

f:id:akiruno_life:20211123164753j:image

Source: Urban Life Metro

 

Kimura: Actually that scene was based on my own experience of going to see my college friend’s band in concert.

 

Igarashi: One thing that struck me about the concert scenes was that droid spinning round and round and not actually playing anything.

 

Kimura: That droid was modeled off of a speaker. You guys had a droid in Lop & Ochō as well. I feel that droids are staple of Star Wars, given how they show up in most of the other Visions shorts. 

 

Igarashi: Throwing in some droids does give it that Star Wars feel. There is a soft and fuzzy evenness to them.

 

Kimura: Droids really help to lighten the mood in those heavier scenes. I think we made the right decision in adding some droids. Hopefully they can make some merch out of them. I’d buy it.

 

Igarashi: That was one of my goals with our Visions short (laughs). I’ve always felt that there’s no separating the toys from Star Wars, and vice versa. I’m still waiting for them to make some Visions merch or toys (laughs). The whole Visions project has this omnibus feel to it, and with each studio trying to portray what they think is the best aspect of Star Wars, I think that together we have created something that is readily accessible to new fans. Actually, I was quite surprised to see how much variety there was in the Visions shorts. I found myself applauding the work of others and thinking to myself, “that’s something I wanted to do (chuckles).”

 

Kimura: I don’t have any regrets with my work on Visions because that was what I choose to do. In saying that though, the once-in-life time nature of this project does have me wishing a bit that I had thrown in some lightsaber action (laughs).

 

Igarashi: Yeah, I also wanted to take our story to outer space. In starting Lop & Ochō out in space, it would have kind of overlapped with some of the other shorts.

 

Kimura: Putting in a famous line like “I’ve got a bad feeling about this” did that too.

 

Igarashi: Overlapping in a bunch of different areas ended up working out, I feel, for it helped convey and boil down the essential elements of Star Wars for new fans.

 

--Speaking of overlap, Yoshihiko Dewa did the music for each of your shorts. What did you have in mind when approaching him to handle the score?

 

Igarashi: I’ll let you go first, Taku, since there are a lot of music elements in the Visions short you did.

 

Kimura: Sure thing (laughs). I admit that I didn’t feel right about taking an existing SW track and doing something rock with it. I mean, the music is a big part of what makes Star Wars, Star Wars. Given the challenging nature of what we were asked to do with Visions, I opted to go for it with a gutsy rock track. Still, I wasn’t completely comfortable with that. The frustrating part was that we had to tell Mr. Dewa what we wanted before the animation was complete, which meant that all the instructions and input from our side ended up being a little abstract.

f:id:akiruno_life:20211123164935j:image

Source: Starwars.com

 

--The general consensus on social media is that voice actor Hiroyuki Yoshino knocked it out of the park with his music vocals.

Kimura: Actually, I have a little confession and apology I need to make. We recorded the vocals for the song first, and it was sung by somebody else. It wasn’t until later that we went with Mr. Yoshino, but you really can’t tell the difference because the performances sound so much alike. Hopefully fans can appreciate this bit of trivia (laughs).

 

Igarashi: Whoa, I would have never noticed! So what kind of song and vocals did you ask Mr. Dewa to make for you?

 

Kimura: The band I had in mind was Kuro Neko Chelsea (Black Cat Chelsea). I like that husky quality of the lead singer’s voice, so that’s the style of song I asked Mr. Dewa to make. Basically something that didn’t sound too pretty. The music in Tatooine Rhapsody stuck with that rock vibe throughout the entire short, but when I heard the music for Lop & Ochō, I was blown away by the incredible breadth of the music that Mr. Dewa created for you. It really felt like Star Wars.

 

Igarashi: With Lop & Ochō, I wanted to vary the tracks between Western orchestral music and pieces performed on traditional Japanese instruments. That’s what led me to turn to Mr. Dewa, as I felt he was really the only person who was up to the challenge of tackling such a wide variety of musical genres. That gut feeling proved to be on the mark when I heard the demo he made for us, for the music had that Star Wars feel. 

 

We tried to go with a film score-style for the overall tone of the music. This is different from the general approach to music for anime, and posed its own unique challenges, such as trying to match the pacing of the music with what was unfolding on screen. That said, tackling this bit was also fun. We went with an orchestral style piece for the opening scene with the Imperial Star Destroyer descending on the planet. For our main protagonists, we used Japanese style pieces featuring Japanese and other Eastern musical instruments. Towards the end, we decided to blend these two styles. Recently I’ve been playing Ghost of Tsushima, and the score for that game features a blend of Japanese instruments and Western orchestra. That was a point of reference I gave to Mr. Dewa in making the music for Lop & Ochō (laughs).

f:id:akiruno_life:20211123165117j:image

Source: In game shot of Ghost of Tsushima by author

 

--Was there anything you found to be difficult in creating these Visions shorts?

Kimura: The toughest thing for me was that this was my directorial debut. But I tried to put up a steady front, as I felt it would be me as the director to look indecisive or weak in front of the team I was leading. The members of our team were really fantastic, so other than this being my first time in the director’s chair, I really didn’t have much difficulty. Everything in production went smoothly. Disney and Lucasfilm also were pretty receptive, and vetoed very little of what we proposed. I was worried they wouldn’t let us put in the big names like Jabba the Hutt and Boba Fett, but they loved those ideas and gave us the green light (chuckles).

f:id:akiruno_life:20211123165301j:image

Source: starwars.com

 

Igarashi: We had our basic concept in place early on, but the question then was how far we’d go with bringing out those Star Wars elements. We changed our mind a couple of times there. Our initial plan was to going with something pretty ambitious, but in doing that we feared it would lose that Star Wars feel (laughs). That led us to change course, and eventually settle on that hybrid approach. Our aim was to create something that new fans would enjoy, while also delivering something that would stand up to the demands of hard core Star Wars fans.

 

Speaking of hard core, Shigeki Izumo, who did all the vehicle and mecha designs for Lop & Ochō, is a massive Star Wars fan who really knows his stuff. I mean, this guy ran a Star Wars site for fans in Japan. He recommended that I read Joseph Campbell’s book, and so I did (laughs). The notes that he showed me were pretty interesting, and included things like the stuff that was conveyed to the studios in the States. Another passionate Star Wars fan on our team was Kaneko, who handled the art for our short. Having these hard core fans on board and ready access to their knowledge was a huge help as we fleshed out the details for Lop & Ochō.

 

Kimura: I wasn’t as lucky, for most of the people around me didn’t know all that much about Star Wars. That meant I ended up having to do the lion’s share of the research (laughs). I mean, I love Star Wars, but I don’t know everything about that galaxy far, far, away (chuckles).

 

Igarashi: Today there are literally loads of books you can get your hands on, making it overwhelming to read up on all the details of that galaxy. Searching out the old book stores is also a tough task. It’s pretty hard to get up to speed on Star Wars if you were unable to witness all of it in real time.

 

Kimura: They keep coming out with all kinds of new merch, too (laughs).

 

Igarashi: You pretty much have to narrow your focus to a few areas, otherwise you’ll fall into a bottomless pit. I’ve got into the little carded figures for The Mandalorian.

 

Kimura: I’m a big fan of The Mandalorian, too.

 

Igarashi: It’s such a great series. Season 2 had a kind of MCU feel to it with all the different characters (from other parts of the saga) assembling. I actually worried they’d steal the show (laughs). Indeed, the characters we meet in The Mandalorian are all so good. That series was always in the back of my mind as we worked on Lop & Ochō.

 

Kimura: Seems like the family sword (that Lop receives) was inspired by the Dark Saber (laughs).

f:id:akiruno_life:20211123165427j:image

Source: Sci-fi and Fantasy Network

 

Igarashi: The Mandalorian is simply awesome. I’d love for them to do a full-length film. All this talk of what we love about Star Wars could keep us hear for ages. We should geek out on Star Wars over some drinks some time (laughs).

 

--In winding this talk down, is there anything particular thing you’d like to ask your fellow director here?

Kimura: The fruit in the market scene in Lop & Ochō really reminded me of the Meiloorun melons in Rebels. Was that the same fruit (laughs)?

 

Igarashi: That fruit in Rebels was definitely a point of reference, but it wasn’t what we were specifically looking to recreate.

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Source: starwars.com

 

Kimura: Sorry for being blunt here, but I have to ask: Do you have the next part of this story drawn up?

 

Igarashi: Yes! We want to take the story to outer space in the next part. Lop sets out after the Imperials to find Ochō, who has fallen into darkness. Along the way I have her meeting up with the Rebellion and having strange encounters of her own (laughs). I’d also like to do a story about Lop’s species.

 

Kimura: Going after the comrade that has gone over to the darkness is kind of the opposite we see with Tam in Resistance and Crosshair in The Bad Batch. That sounds fascinating.  

 

Igarashi: Ultimately I’d like to see the story come to a happy ending, with Lop finally catching up with Ochō and the two working out their differences. Do you have a sequel to Tatooine Rhapsody in mind?

 

Kimura: Give me a shout and we’ll throw on a live performance right away. The title might change each time though, like “Endor Rhapsody” or “Coruscant Rhapsody” (laughs). It’d be fun to do an “Imperial Rhapsody”, too.

 

Igarashi: An “Imperial Rhapsody” would definitely be intense. I can imagine those lightsabers being used as glowsticks (laughs).

 

Kimura: Thanks for the idea (laughs).

 

Igarashi: That’d probably drive a lot of people nuts (laughs).

 

Kimura: I think we should be allowed to get away with that on this short (laughs).

 

Igarashi: I was meaning to ask, but is the Hutt guitarist in Tatooine Rhapsody related to Jabba? Did he do something bad that would have Jabba send a bounty hunter after him?

 

Kimura: The backstory has him as Jabba’s nephew. Basically he has some kind of debt to Jabba.

 

Igarashi: Perhaps he borrowed some money from Jabba to start up the band?

f:id:akiruno_life:20211123170019j:image

Source: starwars.com

 

Kimura: Haha, we didn’t really have all the details of that back story fleshed out.

 

--Now that you both have your directorial debuts under your belts, do you have any concept or something you want to do for your next creation?

 

Kimura: I want to do something fun, perhaps something that is more in the entertainment vein. I’d like to move beyond the conventional Japanese anime style and explore a bunch of other artistic styles.

 

Igarashi: The entertainment angle is also something I had in mind. One thing I really like is the depiction of characters. There is the massive character culture within Japanese anime in manga. It feels like the characters are the ones who really pull the audience in, more so than the story. This is actually something we aimed to do with Lop & Ochō, putting the characters front and center. While I want to craft the edgy images that I enjoy, I also want to compose something entertaining that is really character driven.

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Source: Animetimes.jp

 

--We’re definitely looking forward to what you guys have in store with your next creations! Thanks for taking the time for this chat session!

 

「闇を抱えて」:漫画「バガボンド」に窺えるより相応しいフォースとの付き合い方“Take hold of the darkness”: Insight from the manga Vagabond into a better way for approaching the Force

日本語を勉強し始めたころ、できるだけ日本語と多く触れ合うようにした。その一環として、漫画をたくさん読んで、少しずつ日本語に馴染んできた。最初に読んだ漫画の一つは井上雄彦氏の「バガボンド」であった。その原作は吉川英治の「宮本武蔵」である一方、この漫画は別の視点から宮本武蔵の若い頃を脚色して、剣術を極める道を歩む武蔵の葛藤と成長を描いていく。この十数年あまりで何回も読み返して、毎回いつも新たな発見が待っている。

One thing that I tried to do when I first started studying Japanese was to expose myself to the language as much as possible. I made it a point to read a lot of manga, and in doing so I steadily grew accustomed to the language. One of the first manga I read was Vagabond by Takehiko Inoue. It is based off the novel Miyamoto Musashi by Eiji Yoshikawa, but Inoue chooses to portray Musashi from a different angle, focusing on his struggles and growth in the younger years of his quest for mastery of the sword. I have revisited this manga countless times over the last 15 plus years, and each time brings new discoveries.

 

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Source: Manga Vagabond 

 

バガボンド」の第一巻と第二巻では、天下分け目と言われる関ケ原の戦いの直後を描く。負けた西軍の足軽であった武蔵が追われる身となり、逃げ彷徨う中で数多くの人を殺して、死ばかりを目にしている内に生きる意義を見失われていく。「鬼」と追手に呼ばれる武蔵は、その延長で次第に自分の中の闇が拡大し、自分自身を呑み込まれる。そこで、どん詰まりとなった武蔵を追手の前に捕まえたのは沢庵という禅宗の宗呂。沢庵との出逢いによりある意味で武蔵が生まれ変わる。第二巻の終わりに沢庵が武蔵に向けて言い告げる言葉が印象に残る。そのシーンを下記の通り抜粋する。

The first two volumes of Vagabond take place right after the Battle of Sekigahara, the clash that effectively ensured Tokugawa Ieyasu would rule Japan. Musashi becomes a fugitive as he was an ashigaru (foot soldier) in the Western Army, the losing side. He kills scores of his pursuers as he runs for his life, and in the process he begins to lose that sense of purpose in living as a result of being constantly surrounded by death. His pursuers refer to him as an oni (demon, monster), and hearing that causes the darkness within Musashi to grow to the point that it engulfs him. Emotionally shattered, the man who succeeds in capturing Musashi is Takuan, a Zen priest. Musashi’s encounter with Takuan, in a certain respect, marks his own rebirth. The words Takuan says to Musashi at the end of Volume 2 really left an impression on me. Here is a quote from that scene:

 

「(沢庵) 今までのお前をも見捨てるのか?殺すのみの、修羅のごとき人生が本望か、武蔵(たけぞう*)? 違うよ。お前はそんなふうにはできていない。闇を知らぬ者に、光もまた無い。闇を抱えて生きろ、武蔵!やがて光も見えるぞ。

*第3巻以降は「たけいぞう」を「むさし」に名前の読み方を改める。

“Are you just going to forsake the person you have been up until now? Is a life of carnage in which all you do is simply take life really what you want, Takezou*? No. You’re not made for that. Listen to me. Those who know not the darkness know not the light. Take hold of that darkness and live, Takezou. You will then see the light.

*Takezou is the alternate reading for the same kanji characters that make up the name Musashi. He takes on the name Musashi from Volume 3.

 

f:id:akiruno_life:20210807232125j:image

Source: Manga Vagabond 

 

光が物体を当たると、まるで延長線の如しその物体から陰が投影される。また、日や月が雲間に隠れると暗くなり、光の存在感が弱まる。光と陰、つまり光と闇は切り離さない共存である。それが良く表現されているのは「闇」との同様のルーツを持つ「暗」の字の成り立ちである。以前このブログで紹介したことのある「スターウォーズ:漢字の奥義」によると「暗」の成り立ちは下記の通り:「 " 暗 " は、太陽の形を示す " 日 "と、読みを表す" 音 "から成り、日が隠れて「くらい」という意味を示す。」要するに、漢字に置いて「暗」や「闇」の意味を成すため「光(日)」が欠かせない。その意味で、この漢字の意味と成り立ちを念頭に改めて沢庵の言葉を読み返すと、「闇(暗)」と「光(日)」の関係がより深淵になる。そして、スターウォーズの世界へ目を向けると、あの遥か彼方の銀河系を一つに束ねるフォースに対するより相応しい付き合い方と理解を窺えると拙僧が思う。

 

When light strikes an object, it casts a shadow that seems to be an extension of that object. Likewise, the presence of light, whether it be the moon or sun, is dulled whenever clouds pass over it. The existence of light and shadow, and therefore light and darkness, is intertwined. A wonderful representation of this is the formation of the kanji character 暗 (an, kurai), which shares the same roots as the character 闇 (yami). Both of these characters convey the idea of “darkness”. According to Star Wars: Kanji Story, a book I have previously highlighted on this blog, the character was put together in the following manner: “The kanji 暗 features 日, which depicts the figure of the sun, and 音, which influences the reading of the character. Combining these elements, it describes darkness as what happens when the sun is hidden behind the clouds.” In short, “light” is essential to defining the meaning of the two characters for “darkness” within the workings of the kanji character system of the written Japanese language. In that respect, the meaning and formation of these kanji characters make the relationship between light and dark all the more profound when we read that quote of Takuan’s again. Applying this to Star Wars, it is here that I believe we can see a more appropriate approach to and understanding of the Force, the energy field binding together that galaxy far, far away.

 

上記の沢庵の言葉の最後にもう一度見てみよう。「闇を抱えて生きろ、武蔵!やがて光も見えるぞ。」ここで「抱える」は「受け入れる」ではなく、「認める、肯定する」との意味合いが織り込められているではないかと思う。換言すれば、「闇を否定せず、自分の一部でもあると認めよう、武蔵」と沢庵が唱えている。その事実を認めることにより、光はやがって見えるようになるとのこと。沢庵が唱える光と闇の関係をフォースに照らし合わせてみると、旧共和国の晩期のジェダイ騎士団の破滅に繋がった根本的な誤解が浮き彫りになると拙僧が思う。それは「闇を認める=闇を受け入れる」との誤解である。その誤解のせいで、闇を積極的に否定することがジェダイ騎士団の独断的な信条と確定され、フォースの全体の在り様を見遮ってしまったとも言えよう。

Let’s take a look at the last part of Takuan’s message: “Take hold of that darkness and live, Takezou. You will then see the light.” The implied meaning of the Japanese word “抱える (kakaeru: to take hold of, to carry)” here is not so much “受け入れる (ukeireru: to accept, to welcome into one’s being)”, but rather more the idea of “認める、肯定する (mitomeru, kotei suru: to acknowledge, recognize)”. With this connotation in mind, we see that Takuan is telling Musashi not to deny the presence of the darkness, but rather accept that it is part of him. The recognition of this fact is what brings the light into view. When we take this the relationship between dark and light that Takuan espouses here and apply it to the Force, it brings to light a fundamental misunderstanding that played a part in the downfall of the Jedi Order in the final days as it existed in the final days of the Old Republic. The Order wrongly equated “acknowledging the darkness” with “accepting and embracing the darkness”. This misunderstanding led them to actively deny the presence of the darkness, a practice that crystallized into a dogmatic view that prevented them from seeing the Force in its entirety.

 

旧共和国の晩期のジェダイ騎士団と違って、黎明期のジェダイはフォースをより大局的に見ていた。その価値観が銀河系のあちこちで築かれた古代ジェダイの寺院のモザイクやほかのジェダイ美術に表現されている。「最後のジェダイ」ではルークが隠棲した惑星アクトには最初のジェダイの寺院があって、それは島の洞窟や岩片の特徴を利用される建築であった。その意味で日本の古神道に窺える「自然との共存」とスターウォーズにおける生きるフォースとの共和という共通点を視覚的に演出している。寺院の中には「ジェダイ・プライム」と呼ばれる最初のジェダイのモザイクを底としたプールがあった。「アート・オブ・スターウォーズ:最後のジェダイ」にそのモザイクのコンセプトアートと決定稿をこう解説する:

Unlike the Jedi Order in the latter days of the Old Republic, the Jedi at the dawn of the Order held a broader view of the Force. This take on the Force is evident in the mosaics and other Jedi art in the ancient Jedi temples scattered across the galaxy. Ahch To, the planet to which Luke exiled himself in The Last Jedi, was home to the first Jedi temple. The architecture of this temple made use of the natural features of the island’s caves and rocky enclaves. In that respect, it provides a visual depiction of the shared traits between the coexistence with nature seen in the old version of Shinto in Japan and the harmony with the living Force in Star Wars. Inside the temple on Ahch To was a pool with a mosaic of Jedi Prime, the first Jedi, at the bottom. The book Art of Star Wars: The Last Jedi (translated back into English from Japanese version) provides the following explanation about the concept art and final version of the mosaic created by Seth Engstrom:

 

“セス・エングストロムが手掛けたジェダイ寺院のデザインは、道教が用いる陰陽のシンボル(世界は闇と光のバランスで構成されており、両者の差は知覚によるものに過ぎないという思想の反映)を元にしている。ジョージ・ルカースも、「帝国の逆襲」を監督したアービン・カーシュナも、仏教の禅宗を参考にしてフォースを描写した。「これは最初のジェダイ、いわばジェダイ・プライムの姿を模したシンボルだ」エングストロムは2016年3月にそう説明した… 「それが左右に分かれてフォースの暗黒面と光明面に繋がっている。黒い石は宇宙の構造を保つフォースそのものだ。」”

“The Jedi Temple design conceived by Seth Engstrom was inspired by the Taoist imagery of the ying (陰) and yang (陽), which depicts the world as a balance of dark and light, with the difference between the two being no more than perception. George Lucas and Irvin Kershner, the director of Empire Strikes Back, both used Zen Buddhism as a base of reference in depicting the Force. ‘This is a representation of Prime Jedi, the first Jedi,’ said Engstrom in March 2016… ‘both sides of the Force are connected, with the light on the left and dark on the right. The black stones are the Force binding the galaxy together.’ ”  

 

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Source: The Art of the Last Jedi

 

しかし、数千代に渡ってジェダイ騎士団が暗黒面を否定するようになってきた。その象徴の一つは惑星コルサントにあったジェダイ寺院でもある。その寺院は古代のシス神殿の跡の上に建てられていて、当時のジェダイたちはその神殿に宿った暗黒面の力が完全に消され、若しくは封印されていたと信じていた。この寺院は、ジェダイ騎士団が数千代に渡って暗黒面の存在を封印し、否定し続けてきた歴史を物語る。皮肉にも、これは暗黒面に対する「恐れ」の表れでもあり、その恐れに基づいてジェダイが否定的な捉え方をとった。そして、否定すればするほど、暗黒面たる怪物がどんどん大きくなっていく。

However, over the course of thousands of generations, the Jedi Order came to deny the Dark Side of the Force. One symbol of this denial was the Jedi Temple that was on the planet of Coruscant. The temple itself was built on the ruins of an ancient Sith shrine, with the Jedi of that era believing that the Dark Side presence which dwelt there had been effectively removed or sealed away. It is a testament to the history of a Jedi Order that sought to entomb the Dark Side and deny its presence. Ironically, this negative view the Jedi held was born out of fear, a fear of the Dark Side. Likewise, the more the Jedi sought to deny the existence of the Dark Side, the larger that monster grew.

 

では、フォースの暗黒面とどのようにお付き合いすればいいかが問われる。その答えは案外に簡単であるとクローンウォーズの終幕でヨーダが悟る。後もフォースの流れに置いて自我を保つ術があるとフォースの霊体となったクワイ=ガン・ジンから教えてもらったヨーダは、フォースの惑星へ出向いて、その術を知るフォースの女官たちを探し出す。フォースの女官は五人の妖精である組になっていて、一人ずつはフォースの一面を表している:平静、怒り、悲しみ、困惑、喜び。この女官の構成を検証してみると、窺えてくるのはフォースのバランスである。喜びは明確に光明面と所属するに対して、怒りはまた明確に暗黒面に所属する。残りの三つ(平静、悲しみ、困惑)はどの面に所属するかははっきりしない。フォースを成り立つにはその一つずつの面が不可欠であり、一つがないとバランスが相成らない。また、フォースは常にこの五つの面を移ろい行く存在でもある。

The question then is how does one approach the Dark Side. The answer for that is surprisingly simple, as Master Yoda discovers towards the end of the Clone Wars. He learns from the Force ghost of Qui Gon Jin that it is possible for one to preserve their essence in the Force even after death, and thus sets out to the Force planet to find the Force Priestesses who know this is done. There are a total of five Priestesses, and each of them represents an aspect of the Force: Serenity, Joy, Anger, Confusion, and Sadness. When we take a closer look at the composition of this group, we discover that they are the balance of the Force. Joy is clearly a trait of the Light Side, while anger falls under the Dark. However, it is not readily clear as to which side the remaining three (serenity, confusion, sadness) belong. Each of them is essential in the composition of the Force, and the absence of any single one throws the Force out of balance. Likewise, the Force is continually transitioning between these five elements.

 

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Source: The Clone Wars (Lucasfilm)

 

ヨーダがフォースの女官と出会うエピソードの最初にこの言葉が流れる:「恐れているものと向き合えば、己を解放できる」。フォースの女官たちから授けられた教訓はまさにその通りであった。それは自分の中に宿る闇と向き合って、認めることでした。でも、最初はヨーダが自分の中に潜むダークサイドの存在を否定しようとした。遠い昔にもう克服したと傲慢してしまったからだ。ただし、フォースの女官達に案内された洞窟の中へ入ると、不吉な笑い声が響き渡る。それはヨーダ自身のダークサイドであり、洞窟の壁に投影される陰から現れる。そして、ヨーダを襲い掛かる。激闘の中で二人の間に交わされる会話は下記の通り:

The following quote appears at the beginning of the episode in which Yoda meets the Force Priestesses: “Facing all that you fear will free you from yourself.” That is precisely the nature of the trial that the Force Priestesses had in store for Yoda. In short, he had to face the darkness within himself and acknowledge it. At first Yoda attempts to deny that darkness within him exists, for in his hubris he believes that he had vanquished it long ago. However, when he enters the cave to which the Force Priestesses led him, he hears an ominous laugh echo throughout the chamber. That voice is none other than his Dark Side presence, and it emerges from the shadow cast on the wall of the cave. Here’s the exchange the two have during their bitter contest:

 

暗黒面のヨーダ: 「ヨーダは俺が憎い。ヨーダは俺ともう遊んでくれない。俺を役立たずと思っている。」

Dark Side Yoda: “Yoda hates me. Yoda plays not with me any more. Yoda thinks I’m not worthy.”

光明面のヨーダ:「お前など知らぬ」

Light Side Yoda: “Yoda recognizes you not.”

暗黒面のヨーダ:「自分の中にあるものを見ないのか?”

Dark Side Yoda: “Yoda see not what’s inside Yoda?”

光明面のヨーダ:「その手に乗るものか?」

Light Side Yoda: “I choose not to give you power.”
暗黒面のヨーダ:「その空しさが俺を育てている、戦争で退廃した日々を過ごしているくせに。本当の自分を知るのだ。俺と向き合え、でないと食い尽くすぞ。」

Dark Side Yoda: “And yet you spend your days in the decadence of war, and with that I grow inside of you. Know your true self. Face me now, or I will devour you!”

光明面のヨーダ:「わしの一部ではない。

Light Side Yoda: “Part of me, you are not.”
暗黒面のヨーダ:「俺はお前の一部だ。生きるものすべての中にいる。力を与えてるのになぜ憎む?」
Dark Side Yoda: “Part of you, I am. Part of all that lives. Why do you hate that which gives you power!?

「俺を役立たずと思っている。」

“Yoda thinks me not worthy.”

光明面のヨーダ:「お前の正体が分かった。お前は確かにわしの一部。だがわしを支配できん。忍耐と訓練によってお前を支配する。お前にはわしを支配できん。お前はわしの暗黒面だ。受け入れん。」

Light Side Yoda: “Recognize you I do. Part of me you are, but power over me, you have not. Through patience and training, it is I who control you. Control over me, you have not. My Dark Side you are. Reject you, I do.”

 

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Source: Star Wars TCW

 

ここで、ヨーダがまた自分に宿る闇の存在を否定しようとする。自分のダークサイドに向けて「お前など知らぬ」や「わしの一部ではない」と言い捨てる。でも、否定すればするほどダークサイドが攻撃的になり、ヨーダをその存在に向き合いさせようとする。ヨーダの発言と闇に対する態度はジェダイ騎士団全体の闇に対するスタンスそのものと見捉えることも出来る。そして、ヨーダを始め、ジェダイ騎士団はクローンウォーズにおいて戦争で退廃した日々を過ごしていたあげく、闇が形となった傲慢が育まれた。

Here, we once again see Yoda attempt to deny the darkness that is within him. He flat out tells his Dark Side self that “Yoda recognizes you not” and “part of me, you are not.” However, with each rejection his Dark Side self grows more aggressive, compelling Yoda to face him. Yoda’s words and stance toward his Dark Side self can be taken as the entire Jedi Order’s stance toward the darkness. And like Yoda, the entire Jedi Order in the Clone Wars spent their days in the decadence of war, which in turn allowed the Dark Side to grow and manifest itself as their hubris.

 

ここでもう一度沢庵の言葉に戻りたい:「闇を抱えて生きろ」。大辞典によると「抱える」にはこの意味もある: 「自分負担になるものをもつ。厄介なもの、世話をしなければならないものを自分の身に引き受ける。」自分のダークサイドとの激闘の末、その闇に対する責任を認めるヨーダ。ダークサイドは確かに厄介なものであり、それと向き合えるのは難しい。一方、ジェダイはフォース使いである上、フォースに対する責任を全うしなければならない。自分に宿る闇を認めるのはその一環である。沢庵の言葉が仄めかすように、フォース使いなるものは光だけではく、闇も抱えて生きる道も歩む。ただし、闇を否定してしまうと、それが傲慢という怪物を生み出し、気づかないうちにその傲慢に支配されていく。これはまさにジェダイ騎士団に訪れた不幸な終焉でもあった。この厳しい教訓を経たヨーダは、傲慢として具現された闇を自分のものにし、支配することが出来た。つまり、「恐れているものと向き合えば、己を解放できる」というゴールを達成できた。ジェダイ騎士団にとってもうはや手遅れでもあったけど、その教訓をしっかりと新たなる希望たる者に継がせることが出来た。そして、それによりジェダイの再起の礎を敷いた。

Once again I’d like to go back to the words of Takuan: “Yami wo kakaete ikiro (Take hold of the darkness and live).” The Japanese dictionary Daijiten provides the following definition of “kakaeru” (infinitive of “kakaete”): “To bear a burden that is one’s own. To take on something troublesome that you must look after (i.e., be responsible for).” Yoda finally accepts his responsibility to the darkness at the end of his bitter struggle with his own Dark Side self. There is no question the Dark Side is full of trouble, which makes it difficult to come to grips with. That said, as users of the Force the Jedi needed to uphold their responsibility to that Force, and part of that was acknowledging the darkness that resided within them. Just as the words of Takuan imply, Force users walk a path in which they take hold of both the light and the darkness. However, if one denies the presence of that darkness, it gives life to the monster that is one’s hubris, and before they realize it that hubris comes to dominate them. This is the unfortunate fate that befell the Jedi Order in the end. However, the challenging trial Yoda undertook enabled him to take control of the Dark Side of himself embodied by his own hubris. In that respect, he succeeded in facing that which he fears and setting himself free. While it may have been too late for the old Jedi Order, Yoda was able to pass this lesson on to those who represented a new hope. In doing so, he helped lay the foundation for the reset of the Jedi Order.

 

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Source: The Art of the Last Jedi

 

 

Ghost of Tsushima に窺える日本方法 Japanese Methodology in Ghost of Tsushima

Ghost of Tsushima" というゲームに一番相応しい言葉は「風光明媚」かも知れない。蒙古の襲来に遭う鎌倉時代を舞台に、その戦乱を極めた時代をこれほど美しく描写されるなんて驚いた。ゲームであり、そしてその上に時代劇のオマージュでもあるこのタイトル、当然ある程度の脚色もある一方、当時へタイムスリップをしたと錯覚するほどあの時代を見事に再現している。
The best word to describe the game Ghost of Tsushima in Japanese is "(風光明媚) fuko-meibi", which evokes the idea of "scenic beauty". I was honestly blown away by how beautifully this game was able to portray such a war-ravaged age, showing us the island of Tsushima as it was attacked by the Mongols in the Kamakura Period. This may be just a game, and on top of that an homage to the Japanese period piece films (jidai-geki). Thus, while certain liberties are taken, it gorgeously recreates the period, making you feel like you've taken a step back in time.

 

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このゲームでは、メインストーリーと傍らに色んな「遊び」めいた要素が織り込まれている。その一つは、まさに風光明媚なところで和歌を詠むこと。選択肢としていくつの句が表示され、その中から自分で選んで詩を詠む。制作は海外のゲーム会社であったから元々は英語となっていたけど、和訳のローカライズが非常に優れて、当時の武士の粗末な和歌らしいものになっている。拙僧がゲームで詠んだ和歌の中で特に気に入っているのは下記の通り。拙僧が「逆翻訳」した詩が元の英語といつか比較してみたいな。
This game has a lot of fun elements on the side that go along with the main story. One of these is composing poems at scenic spots. You are given a choice of lines, and from those you compose your own poems. Since this game was made by an overseas game company, everything was originally in English, but the Japanese localization did a fantastic job, producing quaint if rough edged poems indicative of the samurai of that period. This is one of the poems I made that I especially like. I wonder how my "reverse translation" compares to the original. 

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潤して
(水気を与えて豊かにして)
Water yields richness

 

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惑ひ行きつつ訪へば
(迷ってしまったように探し求めれば)
Seeking it though you feel lost

 

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何を思ふぞ 知るものなし
(どんな心持であるのだろうか 誰にも分らない)
A mood know by none

 

この和歌システムは日本ローカライズ版の特定である。元の英語版を始め、海外版に置いては俳句を詠むことになっている一方、日本語のローカライズ版を担当したソニーインターアクティブのチームが敢えて和歌で行くことにした。そこ決断に至る背景はContinue雑誌の特集で取り上げられた。その取材インタビューの一部を下記の通り抜粋(英訳は筆者のもの也)。
The poem system in the Japanese version is unique in that it uses waka. This was a deliberate choice made by the Japanese localization team at Sony Interactive, who elected to make the system waka-focused instead of going with the haiku-based system featured in the original English and other overseas versions. The special feature the Japanese magazine Continue did on Ghost of Tsushima covers the backdrop to this decision. Here is an excerpt from that interview (translation by author).


Continue(雑誌): そういった和訳といったところで一番注目しているポイントは「和歌」のシステムなんです。風光明媚な場所で、その風景を見て、対象を選んで和歌を詠む。その組み合わせの妙な言葉のチョイスに驚いたのですが、どういった翻訳作業が行われていったのかが気になっています。
Continue (magazine): The thing about the Japanese localization that has everybody talking is the waka system. The poems are composed at scenic spots, with the player picking the verses as they survey the landscape. We were quite surprised by all the subtleties in the words you guys selected for making the poems. How did you go about translating these poems from the original English for the game?

 

石立: 和歌システムを初めて知ったときに驚きましたね。大胆な発想だなと思いました。ただ、短歌や俳句を作るという行為には、遊びの要素も含まれているはずですので、簡易な形でプレイヤーに「作る行為」を体験してもらう遊びというのは、正しいのかもなあとぼんやり思ったことも覚えています。
Ishitate: The waka system caused a few mouths to drop when we first learned about it, too. I thought it was quite an ambitious idea to put into the game. After that initial shock passed, I hazily recall thinking that making it easy for the players to compose the poems was perhaps the right way to go about it, since there is an inherently playful element to writing waka and haiku.

 

Continue:なるほど
Continue: That makes sense.

 

石立: あのシステムが「和歌」になっているのは日本語版だけで、海外版は「Haiku (俳句)」を詠むシステムになっています。海外では和歌の知名度が低すぎるためHaikuにしたのですが、日本語版だけは開発に依頼して和歌にしてもらいました。 
Ishitate: The Japanese version of the game is the only one in which the poems are waka, while all the other overseas versions have the players composing haiku. They went with haiku overseas because not many people outside Japan know about waka. When it came to localizing the game for Japan, we asked the developers to create waka poems.

 

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Continue:海外版と日本版で違っているなはそういった理由があったんですね! Haikuでも言葉はしっかりと韻を踏んでいたりと「わかっている」という楽しさがあります。
Continue: So that’s why the Japanese and overseas versions are different! Haiku also has the fun of that moment when you think “I get it!” after hearing how the words rhyme.

石立: 基本的には、英語版のHaikuを元に、日本語訳をしているのですが、場所ごとに3パターンの3乗になっているというシステムは一目瞭然でしたので、まずは31文字をどうやって3パートに分けるかを考え、あとは、各接続部分の意味をつなげて、どのパターンでもできるだけ意味が通じるようにしました。そのために、全パターンの区切れ位置を同じにするなどの工夫をしています。また、歌を詠んだり句を作ったりするとき、普通は一つの主題だけを扱うと思うので、主題を一つにするため、どのパターンでも可能な限り同じパートに主題が含まれるようにしました。 
Ishitate: The basic approach was making the Japanese based off the original English haiku. However, it was clear that we had to come up with three patterns for the three verses that could be composed at each location, so we set down to thinking about how fit everything into 31 syllables (number of syllables in a Japanese waka poem). Next we came up with the meaning for the different connecting parts, but in a way that no matter which combination you went with the meaning of the poem would make sense. To do that, we had to make the cutoff part of each pattern the same. Another thing we kept in mind is that most poems focus on a central theme, so that’s what we did with the waka. We did our best to make it so that theme was present in each pattern, no matter which pattern you went with.

 

Continue:同じ場所で違うパターンで組み合わせても、しっかりと意味が通じるものになっているので、とてつもない手間がかかっているなと感じていました。なにより、言葉がいまの人たちに身近なものになっているのも素晴らしいです。
Continue: It must have taken quite a lot of effort to make different patterns for each place that still carried clear meaning. It’s impressive how you were able to incorporate vocabulary that seems familiar to those of us in the present day.

 

石立: 史実の鎌倉武士は短歌を詠むことなどできない人が大半ですし、武家が雅な歌を作るのも変なので、あえて素朴さや未熟さを残しています。ただ、俳句と違って短歌では読み手の主体が前面に出てくるので、そこは出すようにしたつもりです。また、開発終盤になって、選択しはプレイヤーが理解できる単語にした方がいいだろうということになり、急遽、一部の選択しをもっと理解しやすい、現代語に近い表現に置き換えました。
Ishitate: In real life, the vast majority of the bushi (samurai) in the Kamakura period couldn’t even write waka. It would have been strange for our samurai hero from this era to write these elegant poems, so that’s why we intentionally made the verses simple and somewhat unrefined. At the same time, though, we made an effort to let the perspective of the character come through, as that’s a key difference between waka and haiku. In waka, the main agent is the writer of the poem. The straight-forward-nature of the words used in the poems was something decided on in the final stages of development, prompting us to work fast to replace some of the expressions at the last minute with vocabulary that was closer to what Japanese speakers use nowadays.

 

こういう武士の素朴な顔の描き方が歴史上に正確に捉えている。戦国時代を取り上げる漫画シリーズである「センゴク」の歴史的な背景を解説する本「ちぇんごく」ではに、シリーズの参考人たる中世日本の歴史研究家である本郷和人はこう書く:
This depiction of the more unrefined face of samurai is historically accurate. Kazuto Hongo, the Medieval Japan historian who serves as the consultant for the manga series "Sengoku" about the Warring States period, writes the following in the series' historical backdrop companion piece "Chengoku":
 
だいたい武士は字を知らない。鎌倉時代初め、筑後守に任じたトップクラスの武士、伊勢国の藤原実重の日記が残っているが、彼はほとんど漢字が書けない。「田」や「大」などがせいぜいで、あとはたどたどしい仮名文字である。そういえば、鎌倉時代の武士の遺言状は、仮名ばかり。時代はとんで室町時代管領(将軍につぐNo. 2)畠山道家も「あいつは漢字を知らないから」と貴族に侮辱されている。
 “Most bushi were illiterate. There was a samurai by the name of Saneshige Fujiwara in Ise No Kuni, who was the lord protector of Chikugo province (present day Fukuoka Prefecture), and he kept a diary. However, he used hardly any kanji (Chinese characters) at all. Much of his entries were written in hiragana (Japanese phonetic characters), with a smattering of simple kanji characters such as 大 (dai, or “big”) and 田 (ta, or “field”). Indeed, the wills left by most Kamakura bushi were written almost exclusively in hiragana. Even in the Muromachi Period (1336-1573),  kanrei (deputy to the shogun) Michi-ie Hatakeyama was ridiculed by the nobility for not knowing how to read and write kanji.”

 

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和歌システムはゲームをより楽しくする要素の一つであり、ゲーム内の世界観をさらに拡充する。ただし、Ghost of Tsushimaにで一番重要な役割を果たしているの「風」である。地図で目的地を設定すると、ボタンを押して風が吹かれ、行く方向を辿ってその行く先へ導かれる。日本文化・歴史とそれらを組み合わせる編集方法を研究する松岡正剛によると、「風」が日本方法において重要な資質である。「にほんとニッポン」の著作で「風」についてこう語る:
The waka system is just one of the elements to help the player better enjoy the game, while also helping to further augment that in-game reality. However, the key element in the game might be the wind. After selecting the destination you want to head to on the map, press a button and the wind begins to blow, showing you the way to go. According to Seigo Matsuoka, a scholar of Japanese culture and history with a focus on the editorial process to weave them together, the wind is an important element with Japanese methodology. He wrote the following about "wind" in his book Nihon to Nippon. 

 

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「風景、風光、風趣、風流、風聞、風来。。。こうした「風の文化」の確立は、まさに物語や絵巻が担ったもう一つの重要な成果であった。(省略)
 風とともに去るような遊芸の民が、かつてカタリの世界を様々な芸におきかえて人々を楽しませたでもあろう。さらにいうならば、「風」こそカタリの隠れた本質を時代を超えて運んでいたともいうべきである。」
"We have a number of words in Japanese that incorporate the character for “wind (風)”: 風景 (fuukei; “view”), 風光 (fuukou; “landscape”), 風趣 (fuushu; “elegance”), 風聞 (fuubun; “rumor”),and 風来 (fuurai; unpredictability)... In the past there were also travelling artists that seemingly left like the wind. They were the story tellers, and would refashion those tales through different modes of performance art to entertain people. Indeed, this idea of “wind” is the hidden essence of these artists’ storytelling that has transcended time."
 
「風」に導かれGhost of Tshushimaの世界を巡りながら、この松岡先生の言葉が何回も思い浮かんだ。Sucker Punchが松岡先生が唱える「風」の重要さを意識していなかったと思う一方、ゲームに置いてその「風」の用い方が見事にその持論と重なり合うと言ってもいいだろう。要するに、「風」を使いこなすことがGhost of Tsushimaの醍醐味を存分に堪能への鍵である。「風」を辿りながら敵を見つけ出したり、対馬を探検したり、風光明媚の「風景」を眺めたり、冥人の「風聞」を広めたり、琵琶を弾く遊芸の民から対馬の伝説を教えてもらったりする。ゲームのほとんどはあるゆる「風」の形を通して体験するように作られている。その意味で、Ghost of Tsushimaにおいて日本方法が濃く織り込まれていると拙僧が思う。日本語のローカライズ版をプレーした結果、その印象を受けた。
These quotes from Matsuoka came to mind more than a few times as made my way through the world of Ghost of Tsushima, guided by the gusts of wind. While I doubt that the team at Sucker Punch were keyed into the importance that Matsuoka places on the wind in Japanese methodology, but the manner in which it is employed in the game seems to sync up perfectly with that concept. In short, the key to truly enjoying the essence of Ghost of Tsushima is harnessing this wind. Finding your foe. Exploring the island of Tsushima. Taking in the scenic beauty of its vistas. Building up the rumors of the Ghost. Learning the legends of Tsushima from a traveling minstrel playing a biwa (Asian lute). Nearly every facet of the Ghost of Tsushima is experienced through the different forms of the wind. In that sense, this aspect of the Japanese methodology Matsuoka describes is vividly reflected in the game. That's the impression I came away with playing the localized Japanese version of the game. 

 

f:id:akiruno_life:20210314231040j:image
しづかなり
(静寂と平穏に満ちている)
Shizuka nari
(All is calm and quiet)

 

f:id:akiruno_life:20210314231158j:image

往く流れさへ、おぼめきて
(水の流れさえ どうすべきか迷っているようで)
Yuku nagare sae, obomekite
(Even the current seems uncertain what to do)

 

f:id:akiruno_life:20210314231120j:image

ただ末までも、寄せんとぞする
(水流も私も、なんとか終わりまで辿り着こうとしている)
Tada sue made mo, yosen to zosuru
(Trying to make it to this journey's end, both the stream and I)

 

f:id:akiruno_life:20210314231523j:image


f:id:akiruno_life:20210314231518j:image

エヴァンゲリオンと鬼滅の刃:時代に選ばれた作品 Evangelion and Demon Slayer: Two Works Selected by Their Eras

非常に興味深い記事であったため、一部を抜粋して(英訳は拙僧のものであり)紹介したいと思う。拙僧が初めてハマったアニメシリーズはカウボーイビバップであったけど、次に見たシリーズは確かにエヴァンゲリオンであった。そこで描かれたテーマは非常に衝撃的であって、媒体としてアニメの可能性が無限に近いであることを教えてくれた。そして、早送りしてエヴァンゲリオンの公開から25年後たる2020年には、日本全土と同様にうちの子供も「鬼滅の刃」というアニメにハマった。この記事で取材を受けた社会学者で東京都立大教授の宮台真司さんによると、この二作のアニメシリーズは「時代に選ばれた作品」である。
This is a fascinating article, so I've decided to translate a few excerpts from it to provide the English speaking audience with some of the insights it provides. The first anime series that I really got into was "Cowboy Bebop", but the one I watched after that was "Evangelion". I remember being blown away by the themes that it addressed. Indeed, it was the series that clearly demonstrated to me the nearly infinite potential anime possesses as a medium. Fast forward to 2020, 25 years after Evangelion's release, and our kids got caught up in the anime "Kimetsu no Yaiba: Demon Slayer" just like everyone else in Japan. According to Shinji Miyadai, sociologist and professor at Tokyo Metropolitan University, both of these series have proven to be "works selected by their eras."

f:id:akiruno_life:20210111165938j:image

Source: ITmedia, kimetsu.com

 

"宮台さんによると、95年は「社会の共通前提が破壊された年」だった。1月、阪神大震災が発生。3月、オウム真理教による地下鉄サリン事件。小遣いほしさの「援助交際」、強盗行為の「おやじ狩り」が社会問題化しはじめたのもこの頃だった。そんな時代を枕にして、秋の夕刻にエヴァのテレビシリーズが始まった。主人公の自意識を巡る悩み、極めて狭い人間関係の中でのやりとりに、世界の命運というダイナミックなスケールの「仕掛け」が組み合わされた斬新なストーリーに「10~40代の幅広い年齢層の視聴者がはまりました」と宮台さんは言う。「共通前提が空洞化すると、不幸も幸福も自意識の問題だと感じられはじめます。エヴァはそこにシンクロしました」 "
"Miyadai claims that 1995 was the year in which the universal preconceptions held by Japanese society were shattered. January saw the massive Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. Two months later in March was the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo Metro subway committed by members of the Aum Shinrikyo cult movement. Other new social issues also began to emerge around this time, such as "enjo kosai (young women receiving money/gifts from older men in return for sexual favors)" and "oyaji kari (hunting down and beating middle age/elderly men and taking their money)." It was against this backdrop that Evangelion hit the evening slots of Japanese TV that autumn. The story put forward by the series was really original, centering on a young protagonist struggling with his own idea of consciousness while confined within very narrow social relationships, thrust into a chain of dynamic events that will determine the fate of the world. It appealed to a wide audience, from teenagers to those in their 40s. 'When universal preconceptions start to ring hollow, people begin to perceive the notions of happiness and unhappiness as issues involving their own consciousness,' Miyadai says. 'Evangelion resonated because it fell in sync with that atmosphere.' "

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Source: evangelion.com

 

"「『鬼滅の刃』で描かれる鬼は、強ければ昇格でき、弱ければゴミ扱いされるルール下で生きています。これは今の社会と一緒。倫理よりも損得勘定に駆られて上を目指さざるを得ない昨今の人間たちの隠喩です」。さらに宮台さんが続ける。「鬼もそれぞれ人から鬼になる過程で悲劇を抱えますが、鬼同士はその悲劇を共有しません。そんな孤独な鬼たちが、悲劇を共有して正しい人間のあり方を示せる主人公ら『鬼殺隊』に退治されていくのです」"
"In 'Kimetsu no Yaiba: Demon Slayer", demons are pitted against each other in a hierarchical battle. The cunning climb up that ladder, the weak are treated as expendables. This mirrors contemporary society. It is essentially a metaphor for human beings driven to vie for the top, discarding ethics in favor of self-interest as the calculus for their actions. There is a tragic story behind how each fell from human grace and became a demon, but these demons do not bond together over this shared sense of tragedy. Each of them is on their own. They in turn are vanquished by the Demon Slayers, a group that share in each other's own sad tales and come together to provide a model of how human beings should be."

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Source: Fuji TV

 

"エヴァが、社会で孤立し、自意識の世界にとらわれた個々の若者たちへの応援歌だったとすれば、コロナ禍の時代に老若男女が涙した「鬼滅の刃」は、自意識に閉ざされることを否定するという点で、その対極にある作品だと宮台さんは言う。"
" 'Evangelion' is a chant to cheer on young people who feel isolated from society and lost in their own stream of consciousness. On the other hand, 'Kimetsu no Yaiba: Demon Slayer', which has stirred the emotions of young and old amid this pandemic, is a rejection of this self-imposed isolation within one's consciousness."

 

https://mainichi.jp/articles/20210106/dde/012/040/019000c?fbclid=IwAR0hvw9oZTkiHOn0IazRHoDE1mM5j5HCxhnrvjky_NMTrPZhKj4Ca3onXFY

縁の意義を見失ったジェダイ騎士団The Jedi: An Order that Fell Out of Touch

晩期の旧共和国でのジェダイ騎士団はフォースに対してかなり独断的な解釈を取り、そのあげくフォースの全体を見えなくなってしまったと言っても過言ではない。そして、その独断的な解釈が足枷になり、フォースの流れを自由かつ柔軟に対応できなくなってしまうことになった。敢えていうなら、この独断的な解釈に対する「確信」がいつの間にか「執着」へと変異し、ジェダイ騎士団の礎に大きな亀裂を拓いてしまった。
The Jedi Order in the waning days of the Old Republic held a very dogmatic view of the Force. Indeed, it would be no exaggeration to say that this dogma prevented them from fully seeing the Force, acting as a sort of shackles that denied them the ability to freely and flexibly respond to the flow of the Force. In the end, the case can be made that this sense of conviction placed in their own dogmatic interpretation transformed into a sense of attachment that cracked the foundations of the Jedi Order.
 
「執着」という単語はスターウォーズファンの耳に馴染みのある単語であろう。「執着=暗黒面の道」というイメージを植え付けさせたのはエピソード3「シスの復讐」にアナキンへの諭しとしてマスターヨーダが言った言葉。「執着は嫉妬を生む。それは貪欲の影じゃ。」「執着」は「執」と「着」で構成されている二字熟語であり、どちらも意味深い字でもあるが、ここで検証してみたいのは「執」の字である。「スターウォーズ:漢字の奥義」はこう解説する:「執」の「幸」は「手かせ」のこと。手かせをはめられ、ひきまずいている人のさまをかたどっている。つまり、「とらえる」の意。そこから「じっと保持する」という意味が生まれた。執着、執心などの熟語はいずれも、何かにしつこくこだわることを意味する。」
The word “attachment” is likely a familiar one to many a Star Wars fan. It is often considered to be synonymous with the road to the Dark Side, an image that was firmly planted by the admonishment that Master Yoda gave to Anakin in Episode 3: Revenge of the Sith: “Attachment leads to jealousy, the shadow of greed, that is.” The Japanese word used to convey the meaning of “attachment” in this context is shuuchaku (執着). The two kanji characters that make up this word hold deep meaning in their own right, but here I would like to focus specifically on the first one, 執 (shuu). The book Mastering Kanji through Star Wars provides this insight into the character: “The 幸 part of the character 執 implies “shackles.” The shape of the character is meant to evoke the image of a person on their knees with their hands bound; in essence someone who has been captured. This gave rise to the meaning of “fiercely preserve/hold on to”. The Japanese words shuuchaku (執着) and shuushin (執心) both carry the meaning of holding on to something (idea, belief) possessively and steadfastly.  f:id:akiruno_life:20201206225146j:image

Source: Disney/Lucasfilm

 

本書はその後にこう付き加える:「何かをしっかりと守り続けることは、必ずしも悪いことばかりとはいえない。だが、ひとつのものに執着し、こだわり続ければ、自分をそこに縛り付けることになってしまう。逆に自分が縛られて、自由を失うことになりかねないだろう。ジェダイの師達が執着を禁じたのは、そのせいに違いない。」しかし、皮肉にもその執着に対する独断的な解釈がジェダイ騎士団を縛りつけることになり、フォースを読み取る自由を失わせることに繋がった。その結果、本来守るべきものを守れなくなってしまった。それは「銀河の平和」、そしてその平和の中に暮らしたい希望を持つのは「民」である。ジェダイ騎士団が民へ目を配れなくなったのはフォースに対するその独断的な解釈を守ることにあまりにも必死であったため、気付かないうちに銀河社会を疎んじることになってしまったからだ。
The book follows up the explanation of the character 執with this passage: “The desire to steadfastly protect something is not necessarily bad in of itself. However, if you remain overly fixated on that one thing, you eventually become attached to it. In a different light, you become bound by that attachment, which can eventually deprive you of your own liberty to act. This is clearly the motivation behind the Jedi masters decision to prohibit attachments.” Ironically, however, this dogmatic interpretation of “attachment” ended up shackling the Jedi Order itself, depriving it of the liberty to read the Force. As a result, they ultimately became unable to protect the very thing they were supposed to protect: peace in the galaxy, and the citizens who desired to live their lives in peace. The Jedi lost sight of these citizens because they had failed to realize they had grown indifferent to the galactic society at large, the consequence of their fervent commitment to upholding their dogmatic views of the Force.
 
本来の意義を見失ったジェダイの在り様を如実に物語るシーンはクローン・ウォーズの最後のシーズンの第七話にある。ジェダイ―騎士団を去ったアナキン・スカイウォーカーの元パダワンであったアソーカ・タノコルサントアンダーワールドにマルテス姉妹と出会い、その二人と組んで手を貸すことになる。ある仕事のために惑星ケッセルに行った三人だが、パイクの犯罪組織に捕まれてしまう。牢の中に計画がしくじった理由をもめる中、ジェダイめいた発言をしたアソカ(実は元ジェダイだが)に対して姉のラファが怒り出して、姉妹が何故ジェダイを気に食わない理由を明かす。アソーカと出会うの数年前にマルテス家族がズィロー・ザ・ハットの脱獄事件に巻き込まれ、両親がその事件の犠牲者にもなってしまった。両親と住居が失われてしまった二人の姉妹を訪れたジェダイ―が手助けすることもなく、「フォースが共にあります」だけと言い、その場を去った。
Episode seven in the final series of The Clone Wars provides a lucid example of how the Jedi had lost sight of their purpose. Ahsoka Tano, former Padawan of Anakin Skywalker, has made her way to the underworld of Coruscant after leaving the Jedi Order. There she meets the Martez sisters, and ends up helping them with some jobs. One of these jobs takes them to Kessel, but the three of them end up getting captured by the Pike criminal organization. In the prison cell, an argument ensues over why their plan went awry, with the older sister Rafa angered by the Jedi-like comment that Ahsoka makes, prompting her to reveal why the two sisters do not like the Jedi. She then proceeds to describe how a few years back her parents got caught up in the escape of gangster Jiro the Hutt, with both of them losing their lives as a result. After losing their parents and home, Rafa describes how they were visited by a Jedi. However, rather than offering a helping hand, the Jedi merely says “May the Force be with you” and then goes on her way.
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Source: Disney/Lucasfilm

 

二人の人生を悲劇にしてしまった事件にジェダイが絡んだことを知ったアソーカがかなりショックを受けた。そして、多くの銀河系の民の目にジェダイはどのように映っているのかを遂に悟った。フォースに対する独断的な解釈に執着してしまったジェダイが、その同じフォースを通して人々と縁で結ばれていること、そしてその縁が正しく機能するため何よりも必要なのは思いやりであることを忘れてしまった。それなのに、戦争と政治のことばかりを優先した結果、コルサントアンダーワールドを始め銀河系の数多くの惑星の民の日常に目を配る余裕が失われてしまった。そこでジェダイに見捨てられてしまったとの思いが民の中に芽生えてしまうのは当然のことであったろう。
The revelation that the Jedi were involved in the incident which brought tragedy into their two lives was a shock to Ahsoka. It was then that she came to realize how the Jedi were perceived by many of the people in the galaxy. The Jedi’s fixation on their dogmatic view of the Force made them forget that they were connected to all those people through that same Force. They had also forgotten that the most important thing to make those connections work was empathy. Instead, the Jedi had come to give priority to war and politics, leaving them with little room to take stock of the daily lives of the Coruscant’s underworld inhabitants and other peoples across the galaxy. It is only natural that the belief that the Jedi had abandoned them would take root among them.
 
このマルテス姉妹の過去の話を聞いたとき思い浮かんだのは「センゴク」という歴史漫画シリーズからあるシーンであった。このブログで何回も取り上げたこの歴史漫画だが、その醍醐味は一次資料に基づいた歴史の研究が辿り着いた新説を付け加えたストーリーだけではなく、人間の性に満ちた物語の展開だ。そのシーンは「センゴク権兵衛」の第12巻からである。四国入りの戦いで大敗を喫してしまった仙石権兵衛は主君である豊臣秀吉に改易を命じられ、大名の座から降ろされた。その後、己が如何に進むべきかを知るために、日本の真言宗の聖地である高野山でしばらく居候することにした。歩むべき道を模索しながら古渓(こけい)という高僧と出会うことになる。ある日、古渓が住職を務める大徳寺で和尚と拝謁することになった権兵衛が、元主君である豊臣秀吉が暴君に変わりつつであるとの懸念を打ち明かす。二人の会話の一部を下記の通り抜粋する:
The story of the Martez sisters’ past brought to mind a scene from Sengoku, a series of historical manga set in the Warring States Period that I’ve referenced numerous times on this blog. The manga crafts a tale that interweaves new historical research based on primary source documents. On top of that, the narrative is steeped in human drama. The scene that came to mind is from Volume 12 of Sengoku Gonbei. Protagonist Gonbei has been stripped of his standing as a daimyo (warlord) by his master Toyotomi Hideyoshi for the crushing defeat he suffered during the invasion of the island of Shikoku. He sets out for Koyasan, home to the Shingon (True Word) sect of Japanese Buddhism, in a quest to figure out how to move forward. In his search for his calling, he meets an esteemed Zen priest by the name of Kokei. One day Gonbei has the privilege of visiting with Kokei at Daitokuji, the temple over which he presides, and it is there that he reveals his concern that his former master is on his way to becoming a tyrant. Here is an excerpt from their conversation.
 
古渓:世の万物は縁によって繋がっておるもの。
Kokei: All things in creation are interlinked through “en”.
 
権兵衛:ああ、高野山で教わりました。
Gonbei: Ah yes, that is something I learned at Koyasan.
 
古渓:いかにも。世間は殿下(豊臣秀吉)に支配され、殿下は世間にせっつかれる。そういう繋がりに。
Kokei: But of course. Our society, the world as we know it, is governed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Society in turn is a force acting on him, and in a way pressing him to take action.
 
古渓:然らばもし、世間が天下人を疎んじ、天下人が世間を疎んずれば、天下は悪しき縁の流れに向かっていきましょう。
Kokei: Herein lies the conundrum. If society begins to look coldly on the ruler, and if he begins to neglect society, then the “en” binding all things will sour and head in the wrong direction.
 f:id:akiruno_life:20201206225514j:image

Source: Kodansha


ここでもう一度「執着」という言葉に戻りたい。スターウォーズに置いてこのコンセプトを元の英語で「attachment」で表現している。しかし、「attachment」には「執着」以外の意味がその英語の語彙にある。「attachment」の類義語の一つは「connection」であり、これをまた日本語にすると「結び」や「絆」や先ほど紹介した古渓と権兵衛の話に出てきた「縁」という意味合いが訳出される。「結」と「絆」と「縁」との三文字の共通点は「糸」の部首で、これが「繋がっている」、つまり「connected」の意味合いを強調している。そして、「縁」には英語の「connection」より深い意味合いがあり、敢えて言うなら「フォースを通して繋がっている」と読み取れるではないかと拙僧が思う。
Here I’d like to take a step back and look at the word “shuuchaku (執着)” again. The original English word for this concept in Star Wars is “attachment.” However, the meaning of this word is more than just what the Japanese word “shuuchaku (執着)” implies. One synonym of the word “attachment” is “connection”, and taking this word and translating it back into Japanese leads us to words such as “musubi (結び; “ties”)”, “kizuna (絆; “bond”)”, and “en (縁; “connection”)”, the latter of which we just saw in the conversation between Kokei and Gonbei. The kanji characters in all three of these Japanese words share 糸(ito), which on its own means “thread”, and here it reinforces the idea of “connected.” The word “en (縁)” conveys a deeper sense of connection than the English equivalent, and I feel it carries a similar connation to being connected through the Force.
 
さて、この日英の言語の意味合いの検証を通してある結論に辿り着く。ジェダイが「執着」をあまりにも必死で否定しようとした結果、縁を持つことも拒否することになってしまった。縁を通して人と親しくなって絆を築いていくこともある。でも、ヨーダがアナキンに話した執着の定義によると、絆は執着の一つであり、その絆を失う恐れが暗黒面への糸口にもなり得る。だからこそ、暗黒面への糸口を最小限にするためにジェダイ騎士団は外の世間と積極的に結びを築こうしなかったし、フォース使いの子供を早い段階で見つけ出し家族から切り離してジェダイ寺院に連れて行った。換言すれば、それが「縁」を切る方針に等しいでもあった。だからジェダイが世間を疎んじるようになったという思いが銀河系の民の多くに芽生えたではないかと拙僧が思う。
This study of the nuances in these Japanese and English words leads to this conclusion: the Jedi’s fervent drive to reject attachments led them to reject connections. The connections people form with others can lead to deeper bonds (the aforementioned “kizuna (絆)”, but according to the definition of “attachment” that Yoda gave to Anakin, these bonds are a form of attachment, and the fear of their loss could potentially open the path towards the Dark Side. As such, the Jedi made it a point not to actively build deeper ties with the world outside the Order, and to identify children capable of using the Force early on, take them away from their families, and bring them to the Jedi Temple. Put differently, this amounted to a policy of severing ties with the larger world. That is why I feel the idea that the Jedi had grown indifferent to society at large took root among many in the galaxy.
 
では、ジェダイはこの独断的な解釈から解放され縁を正しくとらえるために何をすれば良かったのだろうか?そのヒントは古渓と権兵衛の話の続きにある。牧伯(ぼくはく:大名諸侯のこと)へどうやって戻ればいいかを知りたい権兵衛に古渓がこう答えた:
The question then is what should the Jedi have done to free themselves of their dogma and adopt the correct view of what it means to be connected (i.e., have attachments)? The next part of the conversation between Kokei and Gonbei provides us with some hints. Gonbei seeks to know how he can return to the ranks of daimyo. This is the answer that Kokei gives him:
 
“然らば、どうやって戻るか?自我や煩悩に誘引されぬ事。己が必ず正しいと思わぬ事。己が必ず間違いと思わぬ事。「己」も所詮は「縁」の狭間にあるように見える存在。つまり、「無」。是を知らば、自ずと良縁は見つかる。縁に導かれるがまま、貴殿はいずれ牧伯たらん事疑いなし。”
“If returning to the ranks of daimyo is what you seek, the question then is how you go about doing that. Do not succumb to your ego or passions. Do not believe you are completely in the right, but do not believe that you are completely in the wrong. Remember that you are the visage of a presence within this web of “en (縁; connections)”, one without form. If you recognize these truths, good “en” will come your way. If you let “en” be your guide, you will find your way back to the daimyo ranks. Of that I am certain.”

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Source: Kodansha
 
この言葉を初めて目に通したとき、真っ先に思い浮かんだのは「最後のジェダイ」で描写されるルークであった。ルークスカイワーカという伝説により生み出された自我に誘引され、自分が新なジェダイ騎士団を自ら築けると思っていた。そして、その自分のやり方とヨーダやオビ・ワンから受け継いだジェダイの教えが正しいと思い込んでいた。でも、甥のベン・ソロに宿る闇を見ていくうちに、自分の父親であったアナキン・スカイワーカと同じ道を歩むことになるとの恐れに屈して、その闇を消すため一瞬で自分の甥を殺そうと思った。それはまさに自我と煩悩に誘引された結果。
The first time I read these words, my mind went to the way in which Luke is portrayed in The Last Jedi. We see how Luke had succumbed to the ego born of the legend of “Luke Skywalker”, convinced that he could build a new Jedi Order. This Luke believed that his approach and the teachings bequeathed to him by Yoda and Obi Wan were in the right. However, when he saw the darkness growing within his own nephew Ben Solo, he became afraid that he would venture down the same path that his father Anakin Skywalker walked down. Luke let this fear overwhelm him, and for a fleeting second entertain the thought of killing his own nephew in a bid to expunge the darkness.

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Source: Disney/Lucasfilm
 
あのことをやろうとした自分に失望にしたルークがフォースを始めすべての縁を切って、惑星アクトに引き篭もることにした。でも、レイとの出会いのお蔭で新な「縁」が形成され、そしてその縁が仲間とフォースとの絆を思い出させた。「己」も所詮は「縁=フォース」の狭間にあるように見える存在であり、フォースを通して「無」となり得ることを改めて思い知る。この「無」を英語にすると「nothing」と訳出されることが多いだけど、仏教においてこの「無」は「無限」に近い意味合いもある。レイが作った良縁に導かれたルークは、フォースを通してかつて自分が持った絆と再び結んで、自分を無にして新ら希望を銀河系に与えた。良縁のお蔭で、ジェダイの歩むべき道を遂に見つけた。そして、それが銀河系にとって良き縁の流れを作り出した。
Disappointed with himself for what he attempted to do, Luke cut himself off from the Force and all the connections (attachments) he had and shut himself away on Ahch-to. However, his encounter with Rey gave rise to a new “en (connection)”, causing him to remember the ties with his friends and bond he had with the Force. He rediscovered that he was no more than a visage of a presence in this web of “en”, which in this case was the Force, and through that he could transcend form. In Japanese, the word that Kokei used to describe this idea of transcendence to Gonbei was “mu (無)”. This word is often translated to “nothing” in English, but in a Buddhist context it has a meaning more along the lines of “infinite potential (due to lack of form)”. Guided by the good connection formed by Rey, Luke reached out through the Force to rekindle the bonds he once held, and deliver a new hope to the galaxy through his own transcendence. He discovered the path Jedi are supposed to take, and it started with getting back in touch. In the end, this pushed the “en” in the galaxy in the right direction.

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Source: Disney/Lucasfilm

「風立ちぬ」戦争と日本人 The Wind Rises: The Japanese War Experience (Part 2)

宮崎駿半藤一利の座談会 (2013年08月)からの抜粋
Excerpts from Dialogue between Hayao Miyazaki and Kazutoshi Hando (August 2013):
 

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Source: Studio Ghibli
 
日本は国家戦略で追いつけなかった
Japan could never catch up
 
半藤一利零戦にしても、あとの戦艦大和にしても、その技術、完成度は、当時、世界最高のものだったと思いますが、それを生かす、もっと大きな技術体系、産業体制、さらに言えば国家戦略で追いつけなかったんですね。
Kazutoshi Hando: The Mitsubishi Zero Fighter and the grand battleship Yamato were two of the greatest pieces of military engineering of their time, both in terms of technical expertise and level of perfection. That said, Japan failed to develop a national strategy, underpinned by the necessary technological and industrial infrastructure, to take full advantage of these weapons.   

 

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Source: Nikkei Shimbun
 
私は堀越さんにはお会いしたことはないですが、映画で堀越さんの親友として登場する一式陸攻[H1] の設計者、本庄季郎さんにお会いしました。とても明るい穏やかな紳士で、学校の先生のような雰囲気の方でした。それに対して、堀越さんには、どこかに世界を驚かせてやろうという山っ気が感じられます。
I never had the pleasure of meeting Horikoshi, but I did have the opportunity to meet his good friend Kiro Honjo, the engineer behind the Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber who is also portrayed in the film. He had the air of a school teacher about him, a gentlemen with a bright yet calm disposition. Horikoshi seems to have been a bit more daring, as if he was looking to do something that would take the world by surprise.
 
宮崎駿:堀越は戦闘機、本庄は攻撃機を設計していますが、二人の作った飛行機は対照的なんですね。本庄さんのデザインは直線と円で構成されていて、実に合理的かつ大量生産に向いている。一方、零戦はあまりにも精微で作りにくいんです。
Hayao Miyazaki: Horikoshi designed a fighter plane while Honjo was the mastermind behind a bomber. The planes they crafted stood in stark contrast to each other, even when considering they were fundamentally different types of aircraft. Honjo created a plane well suited for mass production, with a design blending straight lines and rounded features. Meanwhile, the Zero was much more detailed in its design, making it difficult to manufacture.

 

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Source: Hasegawa Model
 
半藤:その結果、零戦は四年間で一万機しか作れませんでした。一方、アメリカはグランマンF6Fだけで二年間で一万二千機以上作っている。もちろん国力自体に大きな差があったのですが、「兵器ではなく工芸品」とまで評されるほど、零戦の製造は手間がかかったといいます。
Hando: That’s why Japan only made 10,000 Zero Fighters over a four-year period. Meanwhile, the US cranked out some 12,000 Grumman F6F Hellcats in a two-year span. Granted, there was the major gap in the manufacturing capabilities of the two countries. Even so, much of this owes to the fact that the Zero simply took a long time to make, to the point that some joked it was more of a work of art than a weapon of war.
 
宮崎:むしろ、よくこんな作りにくい飛行機を一万機も作ったと言いたくなりますね。実は、今回、零戦を描くのが嫌で嫌で仕方なかったんです。物凄く難しい上に、ちょっと形が崩れるとすぐに「違う!」とわかってしまう。胴体の放物線一つをとっても、途中で微妙に変化が付いていて…..。誰もやってくれないから、結局、自分で描きましたが、試写で観ても我ながら下手だなあ、と嫌になりました。
Miyazaki: Saying all that, I think it’s quite impressive that Japan was able to roll out 10,000 of these difficult-to-make Zero Fighters. I know I dreaded lifting up my pencils and trying to draw the Zero. It’s not that it’s merely tough to depict, but when you fudge it up just a bit, you instantly know you got it completely wrong. Then you have the parabola-like features of the main body, characterized by the subtle changes they make along the way. I ended up doing all this work myself, as no one was going to do it for me, but I got upset when I watched the movie at the premiere, frustrated with the poor job that I did.
 
半藤:いや、零戦が登場する場面はたいへんな見ものですよ。
Hando: Don’t be so hard on yourself. The scenes with the Zero Fighter are some of the best in the movie.
 
私も零戦では痛い目に遭ったことがあります。実を言うと、私は軍艦は大好きなのですが、飛行機はあまり詳しくないんです。ところが、文藝春愁でお前、戦争物は得意だろうと「日本航空戦記」という雑誌を作らされた。乱暴な会社なんです(笑)。そこで、真珠湾上空に零戦が飛んでいるイラストを表紙にしたところ、航空マニアから抗議殺到。「この零戦零戦でも五二型で、真珠湾には行っていない」と。事実、そうなんですが、ちょっと絵を見ただけわかるもんなんですね。今日はその雑誌をお待ちしたのですが(手渡す)。
I actually received a lot of flak about the Zero Fight one time. My passion was more for battleships and naval craft, so I didn’t know all that much about airplanes. Back when I was working at Bungei Shunshu, I was put in charge of doing this special feature on the Japanese Air Force in WW2. My superiors thought I’d be up to the task because I liked military history. That publication really knows how to work its staff hard (laughs). Anyway, we used this illustration of a Zero Fighter over Pearl Harbor for the cover, and oh man, did we get a flood of complaints came from all these airplane aficionados, who told me that I had gotten it completely wrong. While there were Zero Fighters at Pearl Harbor, they were not the 52-type that we had depicted in the cover illustration. Well, they were right, but I always wondered if that was something you could pick up from a mere illustration. I actually brought issue with me today (hands it over to Miyazaki).

 

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Source: Hasegawa Model
 
宮崎:あ、これは違いますね。五二型でもないです。
Miyazaki: Yep, that’s definitely not a 52-type Zero Fighter.
 
半藤:なんと、それは新事実です(笑)。
Hando: Wow, you learn something new every day (laughs).
 
宮崎:五二型は、戦後三菱が復元したものが遊就館にありますね。この前、所沢にアメリカ人の持っている零戦が展示されていて、コックピットに乗せてあげるから見に来ないかと誘われたのですが、断りました。戦利品ですからね。インディアンがトマホークを集めた展示会に行くと思いますか?それに僕は博物館など展示されている飛行機は好きじゃないんです。何か魂が抜かれたように感じる。
Miyazaki: There’s a 52-type that Mitsubishi restored after the war that is now on display at the Yushukan (Military Museum at Yasukuni Shrine). A while back there was Zero Fighter owned by an American collector on display in Tokorozawa (city in Saitama, just to the north of Tokyo), and the people in charge of that exhibit gave me a call and said they’d let me climb into the cockpit if I wanted. However, I declined the invite. I mean, we’re talking about the spoils of war here. Do you think a Native American would want to go check out a collection of tomahawks amassed by a white guy? The Zero Fighters on display in museums also don’t sit right with me. They feel devoid of any soul.
 
半藤:零戦はある意味、悲劇の名機ですね。太平洋戦争の後半は、熟練したパイロットがいなくなったこともあり、すっかり時代遅れの戦闘機となって、しまいには特攻兵器。ボロボロの戦いを強いられました。
Hando: The Zero Fighter is a tragic masterpiece in its own right. The latter half of the Pacific War saw Japan facing a dearth of experienced pilots, effectively muting the advantages of the aircraft and rendering it a relic of the past. In the end, it was literally run into the ground as it was relegated to running suicide attacks.
 
宮崎:本当は、零戦の次にジェット機を作っていなければならなかったんです。堀越は、零戦に小手先の改造を重ねるのではなく、機体そのものを変更すべきだと何度も何度も上層部に言っていますが、受け入れられなかった。
Miyazaki: The Japanese Air Force should have been looking to make a jet aircraft to replace the Zero. That’s what Horikoshi repeatedly stressed to his superiors, telling them that they needed to develop a jet fighter instead of making tweaks to the Zero. But they never listened to him.
 
半藤:結局、”持たざる国” 日本にそれだけの国力も先見性もなかったんですね。映画の中で、零戦を牛車で運ぶ場面がありましたね。名古屋の工場から各務原の飛行場まで丸一日かかったというなは有名なエピソードですが、トラックの輸送も、そのための舗装道路も、最後まで実現できなかった。非常に象徴的なシーンです。
Hando: Utlimately, Japan is a “have-not” nation, and in the war it lacked the national strength and foresight to make up for this. There was a scene in the film in which you show the Zero Fighter being drawn by an ox cart. It’s well-known that at the time it took roughly a day to transport the fighters from the factory in Nagoya to the airfield at Kakamigahara. They were never able to pave the road between the two and make it possible to actually move those fighters by truck. That scene really hits hard.

 

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Source: Studio Ghibli
 
宮崎:でも、堀越さんは著書で、牛車で運ぶのも、当時の道路事情から考えると合理性があった、と書いていますね。それほどたくさん製造していないから、ゆっくり運んでも良いのだと弁護している。きっと牛が好きだったのでしょう(笑)。
Miyazaki: Yeah, but when you look at what Horikoshi wrote, it made more sense to haul the fighters by ox cart given the state of the roads back then. At the same time, there were not that many Zero Fighters made, so he said it was best to take it slow when moving the planes to the air field. I’m sure he had a soft spot for cows (laughs).
 
中島飛行機でも、群馬の小泉製作所から所沢飛行場までやはり牛で引っ張っていました。一部、あまりにも凹凸があるので、コンクリートで舗装したところがあって、これは今も残っています。実は、「となりのトトロ」でサツキがトトロと傘をさして立っているバス停がそこなんですよ。広いのに人気がなくて、横にお稲荷さんがあるという不思議な道だったのですが、今は周りの木が切られてしまって、まるで違った景色になってしまいました。
The Nakajima Aircraft Company also used ox carts to transport the aircraft it made at its Koizumi plant in Gunma Prefecture to the Tokorozawa airfield in Saitama. The road between the two had a lot of rough spots, and there are still sections today that are filled in with concrete. The road with the bus stop where Satsuki stands holding an umbrella in the rain with Totoro in that animated film of mine is the same road. It’s an interesting road, fairly wide and has a shrine for the Inari deity off to the side of it, but is not that well known. Sadly that area looks completely different today now that most of the trees have been cut down.
 
半藤:映画の中で、ドイツから爆撃機ライセンス生産権を買い取るお金で、どれだけの国民が飢えをいやせるか、というセリフがありましたが、これも持たざる国、日本にとっては深刻な問題でした。兵器というものがいかに高価なものかを端的に示す例として、私はよく挙げるのですが、大正十一年、ワシントン会議で、主力艦建造に枷がはめられました。そのとき、造船所の工員さんと鉄が余ったんですね。そこで隅田川に次々と橋が架けられた。デザイン的に見事な「橋の展覧会場」のようにいろいろな橋が架けられています。さらには、この時期、鉄道などのインフラ整備も進みます。逆に言えば、それだけ軍事費が膨れ上がっていたことの表れでもあった。
Hando: Getting back to Japan’s deep-rooted problem of being a “have-not” nation, there was a line in The Wind Rises which I felt really drove that point home. When Japan bought the license from Germany to manufacture bombers, one of the characters says something like “I wonder how many people here in Japan are going to end up starving as result of us dumping all this money on a manufacturing license for a tool of war.” Weapons cost a lot of money to make, money that could be put to better use elsewhere. A good example of this is when the restrictions were placed on the construction of mainstay naval craft by the Washington Naval Treaty signed in 1922. This left Japan with a surplus of engineers and steel, which it devoted to building a number of bridges over the Sumida River (which runs along the eastern part of Tokyo). Indeed, they built so many they turned the river into this kind of bridge exhibit, with a lot of different designs on display for the public. This same period also saw Japan make significant headway in fleshing out its railroad infrastructure. These developments really show how much money Japan’s military ate up and took away from the public’s benefit.

 

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Source: Tokyo University
 
宮崎:荒川放水路を作った費用が、巡洋艦一隻分だったといいますから、軍艦ってものすごく高価だったんですね。
Miyazaki: Naval aircraft definitely cost a lot of money. The flood control system for the Arakawa River supposedly cost about the same amount as a battle cruiser.

 

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Propaganda poster from 1938 telling citizens to put their industrial trash to work

Source: Propaganda Posters: A Window into Wartime Japan (プロパガンダポスターに見る日本の戦争)